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World Cancer Day 2018

Dawn Hesson on February 3, 2018 at 3:54 am
      

To mark World Cancer Day 2018, we at Dove Medical Press would like to present a selection of articles published in our oncology journals over the last year which have created a buzz in the newsrooms and research laboratories.

Orphan drug shows promising clinical benefit for hepatocellular carcinoma

Immunotherapy is a growing research area in the field of cancer therapeutics. Last year saw the publication of the first successful oncoimmunology trial results in Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, detailing treatment of advanced liver cancer with the oral immunotherapeutic vaccine hepcortespenlisimut-L (Hepko-V5).

Tarakanovskaya et al. performed a retrospective analysis on the open-label phase II trial in which the V5 pill was administered once-daily to patients with late-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Of the 75 patients enrolled in the trial, over 90 % were still alive after median follow-up of 12 months and none experienced any serious adverse effects or toxicity.

These results are highly promising, demonstrating the safety and efficacy of hepcortespenlisimut-L as a fast-acting immunomodulatory agent for treatment of HCC. It is hoped that they will be confirmed in a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial currently underway at the Mongolian National Cancer Center.

Figure 7 Patient #63 started treatment in January 2015 (left panel); 3 weeks later, in February 2015 (right panel), both initially presented lesions shrank from 27.8 and 8.9 mm to 20.7 and 7.7 mm, respectively. Ascites clearly visible as dark gray band surrounding the liver at treatment initiation resolved after less than 1 month. After 5 months, AFP levels dropped from 5,034 to 48 IU/mL.

Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 2017:4 59–69

Regional chemotherapy for progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma

Progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare but aggressive cancer. The main treatment for most patients is systemic chemotherapy. Aigner et al. report interim results in OncoTargets and Therapy on the potential of regional chemotherapy for this disease, investigated in a phase II trial of isolated thoracic perfusion with chemofiltration (ITP-F).

Cisplatin and mitoxantrone were administered directly into the aorta of 28 patients with advanced pleural mesothelioma and perfused around the isolated chest area for 15 minutes, followed by around 45 minutes of chemofiltration. With a total of 162 cycles, median overall survival was 12 months and progression-free survival was 9 months, with no gastrointestinal toxicity or neurotoxicity observed.

The study concludes that ITP-F is an effective and well-tolerated treatment modality for progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma.

OncoTargets and Therapy 2017:10

Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor shows potential for prevention of progestin-induced breast cancer stem cell expansion

Evidence from studies shows that postmenopausal women receiving combination estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy are at greater risk of developing breast cancer than those on estrogen or placebo only. Previous work by the Hyder laboratory has suggested the mechanism by which synthetic progestins escalate growth of breast tumors and encourage metastasis is enrichment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool.

Liang et al. are addressing this issue with an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, RO 48-8071 (RO). They show in a study published in Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy that RO interrupts the pathways through which the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induces CSC expansion. Their results demonstrate RO as a potential clinical treatment (and preventative) for hormone-dependent breast cancers.

Exhaled breath analysis for early detection of lung cancer

Early detection of cancers is essential for improving patient outcomes, by enabling treatment of the disease at a more manageable stage. Lung cancer is no exception, where prognosis and treatment options are dictated by the size and spread of the tumor at the time of diagnosis. Nardi-Agmon and Peled provide a review in Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy of exhaled breath analysis, a simple, non-invasive diagnostic technique with the potential for early detection of cancerous lung nodules. This contrasts favorably with the current available screening options which require biopsy to confirm the presence of cancerous tissue.

Oncolytic viruses in development for treatment of malignant melanoma

Treatment modalities for metastatic melanoma have come a long way from the days of chemotherapy and interferon medications. Now the first-line therapies are immunotherapeutics and targeted molecules. Babiker et al. have reviewed the evolving treatment landscape of melanoma in Oncolytic Virotherapy, with a focus on the future of immunotherapies and oncolytic viruses in this field.

Real-world analysis of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma

The treatment option of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine has demonstrated a clinically relevant, statistically significant survival benefit for metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC). Braiteh et al. performed a retrospective analysis of the Navigating Cancer database to investigate the real-world effectiveness of this treatment regimen in a US community setting, published in Cancer Management and Research. Compared to FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine alone, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine demonstrated greater tolerability and similar effectiveness for treating mPC.

Figure 2 (A) Time to treatment discontinuation and (B) database persistence among patients who received nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, or gemcitabine.

Cancer Management and Research 2017:9 141–148

Categories: General

Keywords: oncology cancer breast cancer oncolytic viruses lung cancer chemotherapy oncotargets hepatocellular carcinoma melanoma treatment dove medical press open access

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