Figures and tables




Before you submit any artwork please check this list to make sure your files meet our criteria:

  • Files are provided in our preferred file format(s) if possible (see the ‘Preparation’ section below)
  • Artwork is the correct resolution
  • All images have unnecessary elements and white spaces removed
  • All text is in English language
  • All fonts used are embedded and are the journals standard font style of Arial or Symbol [Roman]), and font size is consistent
  • Any lines are a minimum of 0.3pt
  • Images do not contain any layers or transparent objects
  • Files are named using the naming convention
  • Artwork is provided in separate files to the main text
  • All multi-panel figure parts are labelled (eg, A, B, C, D)
  • Captions and figures are provided separately (the bottom of the manuscript is fine) and all rights and permissions for third party content have been secured

Recommended image resolutions:

  • Colour photographic images: 300dpi
  • Grayscale photographic images: 600dpi
  • Line art or monochrome images: 1200dpi
  • Combination images (photographs and labelling): 600dpi

For compatibility with our graphics software we recommend that electronic artwork files be submitted in one of our preferred formats: High resolution EPS, PS, JPEG, TIFF, PDF or Microsoft Word (DOC or DOCX only) – these should be the format the figure was originally created in to allow any editing that is required.

Image colour is RGB

Please ensure that any files in PDF format are not ‘locked’ files as these are incompatible with our workflow software.

Graphics downloaded from Web pages are not acceptable.

Image files should be supplied in the highest resolution possible.

Try to avoid large file sizes and remove any elements that are not intended for publication, including any excess space around the image. Make sure that the image files do not contain any layers or transparent objects.

PS and EPS (PostScript and Encapsulated PostScript)
These should be high-resolution. All fonts should be embedded. Minimum line weight is 0.3pt for black lines on a white background. This format is recommended for line art and combinations of photographs and labelling.

We cannot guarantee the quality of images supplied in other formats.

Image files should be uploaded, as separate files, along with the main text and any supporting files (such as captions), do not embed them in the manuscript file.

Use the journals standard font, Arial, and Symbol (Roman). All fonts should be embedded in the image files.

To embed fonts in a Microsoft Word document, simply click on File > Options > Save > Embed Fonts in the File.

Keep the font size consistent throughout your work. Do not use effects such as outlining and shadows on any lettering. Any lines should be a minimum of 0.3pt.

Do not include captions and figure titles with your image files. These should be supplied separately as part of the file containing the complete text of your manuscript. They must be numbered correspondingly.

Captions should be succinct but descriptive. Please ensure that the necessary credit line or acknowledgments are included if you have sought permission to use the image. If the image is the property of the author, then this should be acknowledged in the caption. A copy of the permission to reuse should be provided to the journal.

Use superscript a, b, c… as identifiers

Explanatory notes or a key should be present if the figure contains patterns, colours, symbols, or other formatting that indicates significant data. A key should be included if any symbols are included in the figure.

File naming conventions
Please name artwork files as Figure 1, 2, 3... etc. according to the order they appear in the text. In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled [e.g. Figure 1(a), Figure 1(b)].


Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text, but ensure you refer to each table in the text.

You will need to send your original, editable files (e.g. in Microsoft Word or Excel). This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article.

Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply.

Consider the size of each table and whether it will fit on a single journal page. If the table is cramped in a Microsoft Word document, where the default setting represents an A4 page (210 x 297 mm), it will be difficult to represent it clearly on a B5 journal page (176 x 250 mm). If this is the case, you could consider splitting the data into two or more tables.

When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised.

Please use notes or bold text with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance. Use superscript a,b,c as identifiers, these letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right.

When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes. This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible.

Tables cannot contain images.

Graphics downloaded from Web pages are not acceptable.

All text in your table should be in English.

Updated 4 October 2019