Back to Journals » Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare » Volume 15

COVID-19 and Saudi Arabia: Awareness, Attitude, and Practice

Authors Fawzy MS , AlSadrah SA 

Received 1 May 2022

Accepted for publication 7 July 2022

Published 26 July 2022 Volume 2022:15 Pages 1595—1618


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Manal S Fawzy,1,2 Sana A AlSadrah3

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, Arar, 1321, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Governmental Hospital Khobar, Health Centers in Khobar, Ministry of Health, Khobar, 31952, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Manal S Fawzy, Tel +201008584720, Fax +20641326496, Email [email protected]

Abstract: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has transformed our appreciation of healthcare awareness worldwide. The amount of related data accumulated during this time has surpassed any other outbreak of a viral pathogen. Healthcare awareness is related to one of the nine pillars of the “World health organization (WHO) operational planning guidelines to support country preparedness and response”. This review is structured around the awareness/knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP)-related publications in Saudi Arabia up to date to understand the impact of COVID-19 on these domains. The excellent communication effort response from governments, international, and individuals to keep the public informed about the outbreak is highlighted. Unraveling such impacts on the Saudi communities, including healthcare workers (HCWs)/professionals (HCPs), students, patients with different diseases, and non-professional individuals, is essential in containing the outbreak and planning preventive measures in case of future outbreaks.

Keywords: attitude, COVID-19, healthcare awareness, knowledge, practices, SARS-CoV-2


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by a novel strain of outbreak-related coronavirus, which emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.1,2 It has since been recognized as a zoonotic coronavirus, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)” and was also referred to as “2019-nCoV”. Most uncomplicated cases with COVID −19 have mild symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, headache, fatigue, and myalgia, and some patients develop severe symptoms such as acute respiratory distress that need hospitalization.3,4 In Saudi Arabia, the first COVID-19 case was confirmed on 2nd March 2020 (a female case in the Qatif region in the eastern area of Saudi Arabia had a history of returning from Iraq) to be followed by the announcement of the Ministry of Health for disaster declaration on 4th March in line with the WHO guidelines to promote significant concerns about the healthcare awareness, public mass gatherings, and preventive measurements such as “Umrah suspension, tourism, suspension to several countries, suspension of domestic/international flights, partial curfew for 21 days, Madinah and Makkah lockdown”.5 After a while, these instructions followed by the closure of educational institutes, the non-essential business and “stay at home” call.6,7 Despite these restrictions, Saudi Arabia had the highest number of COVID-19 cases compared with the other Gulf countries.8

At present, managing the epidemics is not depending only on the announced and/or applied restriction rules, however; it also depends largely on individual’s adherence to recommended healthcare measurements which are highly influenced by the people’s awareness and good practice.9

In this sense, this review was conducted to summarize the articles that explore and/or evaluate the healthcare awareness of COVID-19 among the Saudi population during the COVID-19 outbreak. This literature review is expected to give deeper insights into the existing healthcare awareness identified by the published work in this region, thereby helping to identify attributes that influence this awareness and highlight misperceptions/malpractices related to preventive measurements for future analysis, prevention of new airborne disease outbreaks, and mitigations implementation.

The Searched Outcomes

The outcomes evaluated by the original investigators, such as sufficient knowledge, positive feelings, worrying about the COVID-19 pandemic and following the good practice such as wearing a mask, handwashing, and social distancing, were searched. The included studies were summarized in Table 1, and the overlay visualization map of the related terminology in the enrolled studies is presented in Figure 1. The column titles of the table included the name of the first author/month/year of publication, study title, sample size, data collection protocol, and the study’s primary outcome. Significant growth in literature was observed from the beginning of May 2020 to Feb 2022. A total of 116 studies were enrolled in this review.9–124

Table 1 Brief Characteristics of the Enrolled Studies* in This Review

Figure 1 The overlay visualization map of the included studies in this review. Each circle represents an item (term) mentioned in the included literature. Curved lines that link (connect or relate) two items indicate co-occurrence of the items in the enrolled studies. There are 13 items in this map arranged into two clusters and linked by 64 lines with a total link strength of 872. The color bar indicates the year of publication in which the item is mentioned in the included literature. The VOSviewer tool version 1.6.15 was applied to generate, visualize, and explore this map after importing the bibliographic citation list in an endnote file.

COVID-19 is a Public Health Emergency

Saudi Arabia has 750,179 cases, with 732,939 recoveries and 9036 deaths on 25th March 2022 (Figure 2) and (Supplementary File 1: the full dataset used in generating Figure 2).125 It employed policies of “availability of personal protective equipment, stay-at-home, social distancing, and quality hospital care to the people”.126 The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health (MOH) has performed an exhaustive awareness campaign communicated via its website ( or direct public awareness sessions, national television programs, several platforms of social media, and mobile phone SMS messages.91 In collaboration with the “Saudi Center for Disease Control”, the MOH has launched a COVID-19-related guide and health education in more than ten languages to provide all citizens, Saudi and non-Saudi ones, with scientific facts and preventive measurements. This early engagement of the public in prevention/control measures, and the efforts paid to combat claims/misinformation, have been greatly extended.8 Various community-based measurements, including

the provision of facemasks, hand gloves, and hand sanitizers in all workplaces/markets, cleaning and disinfecting public places, community surveillance to prevent the movement and gathering of people, closure of masjids/community halls, and hefty fines for those who did not comply with wearing facemasks and social distancing

Figure 2 Cumulative confirmed COVID-19 cases (A) and deaths (B) in Saudi Arabia. Adapted from Ritchie H, Mathieu E, Rodés-Guirao L, et al. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our world in data; 2020.125

were implemented.51 Additionally, the impact of the incidence and fatality ratio-related reports shown on electronic/social media 24 hrs. for seven days on an individual’s psychosocial responses also was acknowledged by Al-Shammary et al.51

COVID-19 Awareness Among the Health-Related Professions

Well-informed health care professionals on COVID-19 may not only be an essential source to disseminate sound knowledge but also to create a safe environment for coworkers and patients. As health-related professions are invariably at a higher risk of developing COVID-19, several recent studies worldwide unraveled the knowledge and/or good practice on COVID-19 among these professions.127–130

Quadri et al found that knowledge was related to the qualification level “interns vs auxiliaries vs specialists” of the study participants regardless of the source of OVID-19-related information. In addition, the overall mean knowledge score and the number of enrolled individuals with correct responses had significantly increased after the intervention.13 Similarly, Al-Khalifa et al showed that dental consultants/specialists with prolonged experience had higher awareness of the latest news of the COVID-19 pandemic.16 Although Tripathi et al found that age, sex, and regional area were insignificant COVID-19 awareness predictors among healthcare workers, their findings confirm that residents who are less educated and “non-healthcare professionals” had less knowledge of COVID-19 and preventive measurements than their counterparts. Meanwhile, significant percentages of participants in their study showed substantial knowledge of the COVID-19 and good preparedness for the prevention/control of the disease.15 By applying 32 concern statements in five different domains-related scales about COVID-19 severity, governmental efforts to contain it, and disease outcomes for HCWs, Abolfotouh et al identified moderate level of concern with Saudi nationality, younger age, undergraduate education, living with others, working in the western region, and direct contact with patients, were identified as “predictors of high concern scores”. They recommended that measures are required to improve the protection of the HCWs and reduce the psychological effect of the perceived risk of infection.20 Also, Alduraywish et al determined a relatively good level of knowledge over the attitude of HCPs regarding COVID-19, and this trend was similar across all regions of Saudi Arabia. They recommended “continuing education programs” to fill the potential gap in knowledge for HCPs in higher-risk groups.23 Interestingly, Temsah et al found that previous experience in their study of healthcare workers with “MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus)” was associated with increased knowledge/adherence to protective practices and reduced anxiety towards COVID-19. Similarly, Al-Dossary et al confirmed this issue, stating that “lessons learned treating these previous infections may strengthen nurses’ ability to prepare, adapt, and effectively respond to any disease outbreak”.26

Taken together, increasing the accessibility to materials provided by health care authorities, intensive training programs for all categories of the healthcare workers, rigorous attentive protocols, and a commitment to change behavior/practice, will significantly benefit the spread of the outbreaks.24,31,32,37,40–45,47,48,60,78,84,131 Mushi et al suggested that “risk communication as an effective strategy to improve the attitude and practice of HCWs towards COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia”.89 Measures to enhance protection for HCPs and minimize psychological consequences/potential social stigmatization should be recognized in the planning stage before any pandemic.49,54,102 Also, it is essential that healthcare facilities provide more emotional/psychological support for all HCWs.68

COVID-19-Related KAP Among Patients Residents in Saudi Arabia

Assessment of KAP related to COVID-19 among populations at high risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and to whom the COVID-19 course would be worrisome, such as patients with different diseases play an essential role in the control of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.25

For example, Alnajashi and Jabbad identified that out of 176 patients with multiple sclerosis, 95.5% realized the COVID-19 symptoms, 90% followed preventive measures introduced by the MOH, and 83% were complying with quarantine guidelines. These findings indicate a high level of knowledge/practice of preventive measures among these patients, although still some anxiety has been identified. Also, about 32% of the patients missed their hospital appointments, and another 15% had a relapse. In this sense, the investigators recommended that actions to relieve the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare service delivery to patients, such as telemedicine, should be encouraged.25 Similarly, Hassen et al found that “fear of disease deterioration if contracting the infection correlated with the rheumatic patients’ levels of knowledge and patients’ perceptions of worsened disease activity were correlated with unplanned healthcare visits, non-adherence to medication, and difficulty accessing medication”.28 Effective positive psychological interventions/support strategies also are required to be immediately implemented to increase psychological resilience and improve the mental health of patients, in particular, immunocompromised and those with chronic diseases,64 as well as who have a history of mental illness.83


The compliance of the general public in following preventive measures plays a critical factor in reducing the widespread transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, the public’s awareness and good practice are fundamental elements in the overall public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic.132

It was evident that Saudi Arabia took extreme measures, including the awareness campaigns to respond to COVID-19, which contributed to limiting the spread and the burden of the disease.133 This action is unsurprising as Saudi Arabia has a unique experience dealing with two previous virus family-related outbreaks.134–137 This unique history assessed the government in considering the rapid response and precautionary measurements against COVID-19 to control its spread.10

Most enrolled studies indicate the significant impact of age, sex, educational level, and income on the knowledge domain of assessed KAP, in which elders, females, more educated participants, and those with relatively higher income levels showed higher scores and/or mean of knowledge levels (Table 1). This finding is consistent with similarly assessed domains in other nations like the Chinese population.128 Previously, females were reported to show more concern/positivity toward their families and society concerning any infectious pandemic.39,138,139 Education and marriage modify individual responses resulting in KAP improvement and overall positiveness.140 These observations could be helpful for future handling of similar epidemics to emphasize the mass media’s role in running targeted awareness-raising intervention programs, particularly for young men, lower-income, and less educated subgroups.

Regarding attitudes, most studies showed a positive/optimistic attitude toward COVID-19 among citizens/residents or health workers during curfew/country closures and/or movement restrictions.10,44,57 This positive attitude was sometimes correlated to the educational level19 or related to some myths.39 Large percentage of study participants realized that the virus could be successfully controlled, and they were confident in the Saudi government’s precautionary measures toward the pandemic (detailed in the previous sections).62 This attitude is in line with findings from other countries worldwide, where most contributors were convinced that COVID-19 is treatable, several governmental authorities have a social responsibility to implement safety/preventive measures to control the spread of this infection, and that their country will be able to control the disease.128,141,142

Regards the practice domain of KAP, most studies, in general, found good practices, and these findings are similar to other studies worldwide.143,144 Being male and having a divorced status were correlated to low practice scores, and older participants, students, and private-sector jobs were associated with high practice scores (Table 1). These findings are similar, more or less, to other reports.128,142,145,146 Implementing strict curfew/lockdown across the country could contribute, in part, to this good practice, as individuals were not allowed to navigate the neighboring areas and other cities during lockdown breaks. All mass media platforms have been full of COVID-19 news, and the short message services have also been swiftly disseminating information. Thus, the KAP domains were relatively good in a positive direction among most of the included studies (Figure 3).

Figure 3 A summary of the main determinants of knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), and healthcare awareness in the current review. The KAP domains were relatively good in a positive direction among most of the included studies. The two-directional arrows indicate that significant mutual relations between knowledge/attitude and attitude/practice were found. SMPs: social media platforms.


Although this review covered many studies conducted during 2020–2022 throughout a broad range of Saudi Arabia regions, one of the limitations of this work is that data used in the analysis of included studies were self-reported, which could have some reporting bias. Also, most studies’ design was cross-sectional and hence, cannot be used to infer causality because a temporal sequence cannot be established. Nevertheless, this study design is used to “generate descriptive statistics regarding the disease/outcome burden in a population or determine background exposure rates”,147 which can be very useful, especially during pandemics.

Conclusion and Future Perspective

The findings of this review indicate that residents of Saudi Arabia have basic knowledge, awareness, and relatively good practice about the way of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, how to protect themselves from the virus, and the highly susceptible age groups at risk of COVID-19. More specifically, most included studies indicate the significant impact of age, sex, educational level, and income on the knowledge domain of assessed KAP, in which elders, females, more educated participants, and those with relatively higher income levels showed higher scores and/or mean level of knowledge. Furthermore, most studies showed a positive attitude toward COVID-19 among citizens/residents or healthcare workers during curfew/country closures and/or movement restrictions. Meanwhile, older participants, students, and private-sector jobs were associated with high practice scores (Figure 3). Collectively, the KAP domains reviewed in this work were relatively good in a positive direction among most of the included studies.

Most concerted efforts organized by the MOH were efficient/effective, with an observable influence on public education towards preventive measurements through multiple media platforms. Based on these findings, Alanezi et al proposed an interesting conceptual framework for augmenting public awareness with elements, including “information sources, types of information, communication channels, and the outcomes” formulated according to the Saudi Arabian lifestyle.18 The yielded observations can provide baselines to the Saudi government(s) and other health associations for keeping the strict measures during the handling of similar epidemics, updating public awareness creation strategies, including the “targeted awareness-raising intervention programs”, expanding targeted populations’ attitudes toward the pandemic, and planning preventive measures during the lockdown periods in case of future outbreaks.


We would like to thank all the authors of the original articles enrolled in this study. This work was supported by funding from the Deanship of Scientific Research (grant no. 2222-MED-2019-1-10-F), Northern Border University (NBU), Arar, Saudi Arabia.


The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727–733. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

2. Ghinai I, McPherson TD, Hunter JC, et al. First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. Lancet. 2020;395(10230):1137–1144. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30607-3

3. Kuehn BM. Most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have lasting symptoms. JAMA. 2021;325(11):1031.

4. Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(15):458–464. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3

5. Durai CAD, Begum A, Jebaseeli J, Sabahath A. COVID-19 pandemic, predictions and control in Saudi Arabia using SIR-F and age-structured SEIR model. J Supercomput. 2021;78:1–13.

6. Alharbi MM, Rabbani SI, Asdaq SMB, et al. Infection spread, recovery, and fatality from Coronavirus in different provinces of Saudi Arabia. Healthcare. 2021;9:8.

7. Adly HM, AlJahdali IA, Garout MA, Khafagy AA, Saati AA, Saleh SAK. Correlation of COVID-19 pandemic with healthcare system response and prevention measures in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(18):18. doi:10.3390/ijerph17186666

8. Khan A, Alsofayan Y, Alahmari A, et al. COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: the national health response. East Mediterr Health J. 2021;27(11):1114–1124. doi:10.26719/emhj.21.048

9. Almaghrabi MK. Public awareness, attitudes, and adherence to COVID-19 quarantine and isolation in Saudi Arabia. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:4395–4403. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S318629

10. Al-Hanawi MK, Angawi K, Alshareef N, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 among the public in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2020;8:217. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00217

11. Siddiqui AA, Alshammary F, Amin J, et al. Knowledge and practice regarding prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi Arabian population. Work. 2020;66(4):767–775. doi:10.3233/WOR-203223

12. Elgzar WT, Al-Qahtani AM, Elfeki NK, Ibrahim HA. COVID-19 outbreak: effect of an educational intervention based on health belief model on nursing students’ awareness and health beliefs at Najran University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2020;24(s1):78–86. doi:10.29063/ajrh2020/v24i2s.12

13. Quadri MFA, Jafer MA, Alqahtani AS, et al. Novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19) awareness among the dental interns, dental auxiliaries and dental specialists in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide study. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(6):856–864. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.010

14. Almofada SK, Alherbisch RJ, Almuhraj NA, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 in a Saudi Arabian population: a cross-sectional study. Cureus. 2020;12(6):e8905. doi:10.7759/cureus.8905

15. Tripathi R, Alqahtani SS, Albarraq AA, et al. awareness and preparedness of covid-19 outbreak among healthcare workers and other residents of South-West Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey. Front Public Health. 2020;8:482. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00482

16. Al-Khalifa KS, AlSheikh R, Al-Swuailem AS, et al. Pandemic preparedness of dentists against coronavirus disease: a Saudi Arabian experience. PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237630. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237630

17. Temsah MH, Alhuzaimi AN, Alamro N, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers during the early COVID-19 pandemic in a main, academic tertiary care centre in Saudi Arabia. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e203. doi:10.1017/S0950268820001958

18. Alanezi F, Aljahdali A, Alyousef S, et al. Implications of public understanding of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia for fostering effective communication through awareness framework. Front Public Health. 2020;8:494. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00494

19. Alhazmi A, Ali MHM, Mohieldin A, Aziz F, Osman OB, Ahmed WA. Knowledge, attitudes and practices among people in Saudi Arabia regarding COVID-19: a cross-sectional study. J Public Health Res. 2020;9(3):1867. doi:10.4081/jphr.2020.1867

20. Abolfotouh MA, Almutairi AF, BaniMustafa AA, Hussein MA. Perception and attitude of healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia with regard to Covid-19 pandemic and potential associated predictors. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):719. doi:10.1186/s12879-020-05443-3

21. Bdair IA, Alshloul MN, Maribbay GL. Public awareness toward coronavirus disease-2019. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2020;32(6–7):354–356. doi:10.1177/1010539520949421

22. Alahdal H, Basingab F, Alotaibi R. An analytical study on the awareness, attitude and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(10):1446–1452. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.015

23. Alduraywish AA, Srivastava KC, Shrivastava D, et al. A countrywide survey in Saudi Arabia regarding the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals about Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(20):20. doi:10.3390/ijerph17207415

24. Qadah T. Knowledge and attitude among healthcare workers towards COVID-19: a cross sectional study from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14(10):1090–1097. doi:10.3855/jidc.13083

25. Alnajashi H, Jabbad R. Behavioral practices of patients with multiple sclerosis during Covid-19 pandemic. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0241103. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241103

26. Al-Dossary R, Alamri M, Albaqawi H, et al. Awareness, attitudes, prevention, and perceptions of COVID-19 outbreak among nurses in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21):21. doi:10.3390/ijerph17218269

27. Doumani M, Habib AA, Alotaibi AN, et al. The knowledge about coronavirus (COVID-19) among populations in two different Arab countries. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(11):5614–5621. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_789_20

28. Hassen LM, Almaghlouth IA, Hassen IM, et al. Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on rheumatic patients’ perceptions and behaviors: a cross-sectional study. Int J Rheum Dis. 2020;23(11):1541–1549. doi:10.1111/1756-185X.13959

29. Zakout YM, Khatoon F, Bealy MA, Khalil NA, Alhazimi AM. Role of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the upgrading of personal hygiene. A cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2020;41(11):1263–1269. doi:10.15537/smj.2020.11.25402

30. Bazaid AS, Aldarhami A, Binsaleh NK, Sherwani S, Althomali OW. Knowledge and practice of personal protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243695. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243695

31. Shahin SY, Bugshan AS, Almulhim KS, et al. Knowledge of dentists, dental auxiliaries, and students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20(1):363. doi:10.1186/s12903-020-01361-7

32. Mustafa RM, Alshali RZ, Bukhary DM. Dentists’ knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of infection control measures during COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(23):23. doi:10.3390/ijerph17239016

33. Alsukah AI, Algadheeb NA, Almeqren MA, et al. Individuals’ self-reactions toward COVID-19 pandemic in relation to the awareness of the disease, and psychological hardiness in Saudi Arabia. Front Psychol. 2020;11:588293. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.588293

34. Aldrees T, Almatrafi S, Aldriweesh T, Mokhatrish M, Salamh A, Alkholaiwi F. Medical students’ awareness of smell loss as a predictor for Coronavirus Disease 2019. Front Public Health. 2020;8:597897. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.597897

35. Aljameel SS, Alabbad DA, Alzahrani NA, et al. A sentiment analysis approach to predict an individual’s awareness of the precautionary procedures to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;18(1):1. doi:10.3390/ijerph18010218

36. Albaqawi HM, Alquwez N, Balay-Odao E, et al. Nursing students’ perceptions, knowledge, and preventive behaviors toward COVID-19: a multi-university study. Front Public Health. 2020;8:573390. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.573390

37. Srivastava KC, Shrivastava D, Sghaireen MG, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding COVID-19 among dental health care professionals: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. J Int Med Res. 2020;48(12):300060520977593. doi:10.1177/0300060520977593

38. Alnasser AHA, Al-Tawfiq JA, MSH AK, et al. The positive impact of social media on the level of COVID-19 awareness in Saudi Arabia: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Infez Med. 2020;28(4):545–550.

39. Baig M, Jameel T, Alzahrani SH, et al. Predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of Saudi population. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243526. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243526

40. Alanezi F, Aljahdali A, Alyousef SM, et al. Investigating healthcare practitioners’ attitudes towards the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia: a general qualitative framework for managing the pandemic. Inform Med Unlocked. 2021;22:100491. doi:10.1016/j.imu.2020.100491

41. Shrivastava D, Alduraywish AA, Srivastava KC, et al. Assessment of knowledge and attitude of allied healthcare professionals about COVID-19 across Saudi Arabia. Work. 2021;68(2):305–315. doi:10.3233/WOR-203377

42. El-Masry EA, Mohamed RA, Ali RI, Al Mulhim MF, Taha AE. Novel coronavirus disease-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among the residents of Al-Jouf region in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2021;15(1):32–39. doi:10.3855/jidc.14243

43. Al-Rasheedi M, Alhazmi Y, Mateq Ali A, et al. Public and healthcare providers awareness of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28(1):90–98. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.035

44. Bashir S, Alsultan F, Iqbal M, et al. Healthcare workers’ knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2021;25(2):1060–1069. doi:10.26355/eurrev_202101_24676

45. Tarakji B, Nassani MZ, Alali FM, et al. COVID-19-awareness and practice of dentists in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(1):1. doi:10.3390/ijerph18010330

46. Alsoghair M, Almazyad M, Alburaykan T, et al. Medical students and COVID-19: knowledge, preventive behaviors, and risk perception. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(2):2. doi:10.3390/ijerph18020842

47. Shaikhain TA, Al-Husayni FA, Alhejaili EA, et al. COVID-19-related knowledge and practices among health care workers in Saudi Arabia: cross-sectional questionnaire study. JMIR Form Res. 2021;5(1):e21220. doi:10.2196/21220

48. Malaekah H, Aljahany M, Alassaf W, Alotaibi M, Alsaffar M. Attitudes and preparedness of non-frontline physicians in Saudi Arabia toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2021;1–8. doi:10.1017/dmp.2021.10

49. Javed MQ, Chaudhary FA, Mohsin SF, et al. Dental health care providers’ concerns, perceived impact, and preparedness during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. PeerJ. 2021;9:e11584. doi:10.7717/peerj.11584

50. Alnasser AHA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Kalif MSH, et al. Public knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Med Sci. 2021;9:1.

51. Al-Shammary AA, Hassan SU, Zahra A, Algahtani FBZ, Suleiman S. Role of community-based measures in adherence to self-protective behaviors during first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Health Promot Perspect. 2021;11(1):69–79. doi:10.34172/hpp.2021.10

52. Al Naam YA, Elsafi SH, Alkharraz ZS, Alfahad OA, Al-Jubran KM, Al Zahrani EM. Community practice of using face masks for the prevention of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. PLoS One. 2021;16(2):e0247313. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247313

53. Al-Saleh MM, Alamri AM, Alhefzi AA, Assiri KK, Moshebah AY. Population healthy lifestyle changes in Abha city during COVID-19 lockdown, Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care. 2021;10(2):809–815. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1224_20

54. Rabbani U, Al Saigul AM. Knowledge, attitude and practices of health care workers about Corona Virus disease 2019 in Saudi Arabia. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2021;11(1):60–68. doi:10.2991/jegh.k.200819.002

55. Natto ZS, Alshaeri HK. Are Saudi healthcare students aware of COVID-19, and do they behave safely during viral outbreaks? Niger J Clin Pract. 2021;24(3):406–411. doi:10.4103/njcp.njcp_259_20

56. Almatari M, Alghamdi A, Alamri S, et al. Measuring awareness of infection control guidelines for patients with COVID-19 in radiology departments in Saudi Arabia. Med Sci. 2021;9:1.

57. Abolfotouh MA, Almutairi AF, Banimustafa A, Hagras SA, Al Jeraisy M. Behavior responses and attitude of the public to COVID-19 pandemic during movement restrictions in Saudi Arabia. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:741–753. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S296867

58. Alqahtani A, Aldahish A, Krishnaraju V, Alqarni M, Al-Sheikh Hassan M. General public knowledge of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at early stages of the pandemic: a random online survey in Saudi Arabia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2021;15:601–609. doi:10.2147/PPA.S300641

59. Gosadi IM, Daghriri KA, Shugairi AA, et al. Community-based observational assessment of compliance by the public with COVID19 preventive measures in the south of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28(3):1938–1943. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.045

60. Syed AAO, Jahan S, Aldahlawi AA, Alghazzawi EA. Preventive practices of ophthalmologists during COVID-19 pandemic. Clin Ophthalmol. 2021;15:1267–1275. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S295730

61. Alshammari AS, Alshammari H, Alshammari S. Factors associated with adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among Saudi Arabians. Cureus. 2021;13(4):e14623. doi:10.7759/cureus.14623

62. Alqahtani AS, Alrasheed MM, Alqunaibet AM. Public response, anxiety and behaviour during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(9):9. doi:10.3390/ijerph18094628

63. AlNajrany SM, Asiri Y, Sales I, AlRuthia Y. The commonly utilized natural products during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional online survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(9):9. doi:10.3390/ijerph18094688

64. Al-Rahimi JS, Nass NM, Hassoubah SA, Wazqar DY, Alamoudi SA. Levels and predictors of fear and health anxiety during the current outbreak of COVID-19 in immunocompromised and chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional correlational study. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0250554. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0250554

65. AlRasheed MM, Alsugair AM, Almarzouqi HF, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of security and safety workers toward the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2021;9:631717. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.631717

66. Aldhahri M, Alghamdi R. Awareness of COVID-19 before and after quarantine based on crowdsourced data from Rabigh City, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional and comparative study. Front Public Health. 2021;9:632024. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.632024

67. Alqahtani AH, Alqahtani SA, Alhodaib AS, et al. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) toward the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in a Saudi population-based survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5286. doi:10.3390/ijerph18105286

68. Temsah MH, Al Huzaimi A, Alrabiaah A, et al. Changes in healthcare workers’ knowledge, attitudes, practices, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medicine. 2021;100(18):e25825. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000025825

69. Aldhmadi BK, Kumar R, Itumalla R, Perera B. Depressive symptomatology and practice of safety measures among undergraduate students during COVID-19: impact of gender. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18:9. doi:10.3390/ijerph18094924

70. Aleanizy FS, Alqahtani FY. Awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 infection control precautions and waste management among healthcare workers: Saudi cross-sectional study. Medicine. 2021;100(21):e26102. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000026102

71. Elagib MFA, Baldo SMH, Tawfig A, Alqarni MA, Ghandour IA, Idris AM. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control measures among dental students during COVID-19 pandemic. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2021;77:1–13.

72. Mahdi HA, Assaggaf HM, Alfelali M, et al. Hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices among domestic visitors to the Prophet’s Mosque in Al Madinah City amid the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18:2. doi:10.3390/ijerph18020673

73. Alkhaldi G, Aljuraiban GS, Alhurishi S, et al. Perceptions towards COVID-19 and adoption of preventive measures among the public in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1251. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11223-8

74. Almoayad FA, Bin-Amer LA, Mahboub S, Alrabiah AM, Alhashem AM. Preventive practices against COVID-19 among residents of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2021;15(6):780–786. doi:10.3855/jidc.13175

75. Alsaif B, Elhassan NEE, Itumalla R, Ali KE, Alzain MA. Assessing the level of awareness of COVID-19 and prevalence of general anxiety disorder among the Hail Community, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(13):13. doi:10.3390/ijerph18137035

76. Alotiby AA, Al-Harbi LN. Attitudes towards COVID-19-related medical misinformation among healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia during the pandemic: an online cross-sectional survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(11):11. doi:10.3390/ijerph18116123

77. Sharanesha RB, Aljuai BK, Alfaifi TA, Shukr AM, Bamuqadm MA, Alhoti AA. Knowledge and attitude regarding COVID-19 among students from multiple professional background in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2021;13(Suppl 1):S251–S256. doi:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_703_20

78. Binsaleh NK, Bazaid AS, Aldarhami A, Sherwani S, Althomali OW. Awareness and practice of COVID-19 precautionary measures among healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2021;14:1553–1560. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S317908

79. Albeladi FI, Alluli MM, Daghriri KA, et al. Level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among health care workers in Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2021;13(6):e15969. doi:10.7759/cureus.15969

80. Alassaf A, Almulhim B, Alghamdi SA, Mallineni SK. Perceptions and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and oral health care perceptions during the lockdown: a cross-sectional survey from Saudi Arabia. Healthcare. 2021;9(8). doi:10.3390/healthcare9080959

81. Alshareef N, Yunusa I, Al-Hanawi MK. The influence of COVID-19 information sources on the attitudes and practices toward COVID-19 among the general public of Saudi Arabia: cross-sectional online survey study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2021;7(7):e28888. doi:10.2196/28888

82. Almarwani AM, Aljohani MS, Eweda G. Perceived quarantine competence, attitudes and practices among the public during the coronavirus pandemic: a Saudi descriptive study. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(7):e14242. doi:10.1111/ijcp.14242

83. AlHadi AN, Alarabi MA, AlMansoor KM. Mental health and its association with coping strategies and intolerance of uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Saudi Arabia: cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2021;21(1):382. doi:10.1186/s12888-021-03370-4

84. Almohammed OA, Aldwihi LA, Alragas AM, Almoteer AI, Gopalakrishnan S, Alqahtani NM. Knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with COVID-19 among healthcare workers in hospitals: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Front Public Health. 2021;9:643053. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.643053

85. Mohsin SF, Agwan MA, Alsuwaydani ZA. Knowledge towards COVID-19 among healthcare students in the central region of Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional observational study. Postgrad Med J. 2021;97(1149):448–451. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138274

86. Al-Rayes SA, Alumran A, Aljabri D, et al. Public awareness and utilization of 937-telephone health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: longitudinal study. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(7):e27618. doi:10.2196/27618

87. Alghamdi AN, Alotaibi MI, Alqahtani ASA, Al Aboud D, Abdel-Moneim AS. Association between educational status and awareness of adherence to preventive measures for COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2021;33(5):623–626. doi:10.1177/10105395211014637

88. Alotiby A. The impact of media on public health awareness concerning the use of natural remedies against the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:3145–3152. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S317348

89. Mushi A, Yassin Y, Khan A, Yezli S, Almuzaini Y. Knowledge, attitude, and perceived risks towards COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of risk communication messages on healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:2811–2824. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S306402

90. Meisha DE. Comparison of compliance with infection control practices among dental students in Saudi Arabia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:3625–3633. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S318031

91. Al-Wutayd O, Mansour AE, Aldosary AH, Hamdan HZ, Al-Batanony MA. Handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a non-representative cross-sectional study. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):16769. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96393-6

92. Alotaibi N, Almutairi S, Alotaibi M, Alotaibi MM, Alsufian T. The extent of commitment of Saudis during holy ramadan to social distancing measures required for the prevention of transmission of COVID-19. J Community Health. 2021;46(4):693–702. doi:10.1007/s10900-020-00936-3

93. Algahtani FD, Alzain MA, Haouas N, et al. Coping during COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi community: religious attitudes, practices and associated factors. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(16):8651. doi:10.3390/ijerph18168651

94. Al Khathlan N, Padhi BK. Adherence to COVID-19 appropriate behavior among respiratory therapists: a cross-sectional study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Front Public Health. 2021;9:715982. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.715982

95. Ashgar RI. Health-promoting behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic among Saudi Adults: a cross-sectional study. J Adv Nurs. 2021;77(8):3389–3397. doi:10.1111/jan.14863

96. Aldhmadi BK, Itumalla R, Kumar R, Perera B. Feelings, behavioral actions and depressive symptoms related to COVID-19 among undergraduates in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Healthcare. 2021;9(10).

97. Almoslem MM, Alshehri TA, Althumairi AA, Aljassim MT, Hassan ME, Berekaa MM. Handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and Practices among students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia. J Environ Public Health. 2021;2021:6638443. doi:10.1155/2021/6638443

98. Alsharqi OZ, Qattan AMN, Alshareef N, Chirwa GC, Al-Hanawi MK. Inequalities in knowledge about COVID-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Front Public Health. 2021;9:743520. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.743520

99. Alagili DE, Bamashmous M. The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework for COVID-19 prevention practices. J Infect Public Health. 2021;14(10):1398–1403. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.024

100. Shaikhain T, Al-Husayni F, Bukhari G, et al. Knowledge and attitude toward coronavirus disease 19 pandemic among Saudi Arabia population: a cross-sectional study. SAGE Open Med. 2021;9:20503121211052421. doi:10.1177/20503121211052421

101. Alkhalifah FN, Tobbal AY, Fried JL. COVID-19 impact, knowledge and preparedness among dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Dent Hyg. 2021;19(4):464–473. doi:10.1111/idh.12544

102. Almoayad F, Mahboub S, Amer LB, Alrabiah A, Alhashem A. Stigmatisation of COVID-19 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2021;21(4):525–531. doi:10.18295/squmj.4.2021.044

103. Alomari AH, Aga O, El Sahmarany L, Hegazi M, Almulla L. Public perception towards medical waste generated in the environment during the COVID-19 pandemic in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Heliyon. 2021;7(11):e08363. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08363

104. Almomen KA, Alghamdi HA, Ahmad HA, et al. Awareness and knowledge of different types of face masks amid the COVID-19 pandemic among health-care professionals across Kingdom of Saudi Arabia an Original Research. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2021;13(Suppl 2):S1664–S1667. doi:10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_397_21

105. Alghalyini B, Albeyahi A, Abou Shaar B, Salah M. Perception of the COVID-19 pandemic among members of Saudi society: solidarity, humility, and connectivity. Cureus. 2021;13(11):e19427. doi:10.7759/cureus.19427

106. Syed MH, Meraya AM, Yasmeen A, et al. Application of the health belief model to assess community preventive practices against COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2021;29(11):1329–1335. doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2021.09.010

107. Abalkhail A, Mahmud I, Alhumaydhi FA, et al. Hand hygiene knowledge and perception among the healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Qassim, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey. Healthcare. 2021;9:12.

108. Almalki MJ. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 among the general public in the Border Region of Jazan, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2021;9:733125. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.733125

109. AbuAlhommos AK, Alhadab FE, Almajhad MM, Almutawaa R, Alabdulkareem ST. Community knowledge of and attitudes towards COVID-19 prevention techniques in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(23):23. doi:10.3390/ijerph182312783

110. Bin Abdulrahman AK, Bin Abdulrahman KA, Nouh RM. Response of Saudi population to strict preventive measures against COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(24):24. doi:10.3390/ijerph182413424

111. Alshammary F, Siddiqui AA, Amin J, et al. Prevention knowledge and its practice towards COVID-19 among general population of Saudi Arabia: a gender-based perspective. Curr Pharm Des. 2021;27(13):1642–1648. doi:10.2174/1381612826666200818213558

112. Almalki S, Asseri M, Khawaji Y, et al. Awareness about Coronavirus (COVID-19) and challenges for blood services among potential blood donors. Transfus Apher Sci. 2021;60(6):103211. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2021.103211

113. Alassaf W, AlQahtani S, Binladen T, et al. Compliance toward protective precautions during and after the lockdown among citizens of Riyadh. Cureus. 2021;13(12):e20320. doi:10.7759/cureus.20320

114. Sadaf S, AlEraky D, Farooqi F, Syed F, Alhareky M, AlHumaid J. COVID-19 myth busters: comparing knowledge and perceptions amongst the dental workforce at an institution in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0260698. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0260698

115. Almalki MJ. A cross-sectional study of the satisfaction with, adherence to, and perspectives toward COVID-19 preventive measures among public health students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(2):802. doi:10.3390/ijerph19020802

116. Meo SA, Alqahtani SA, Aljedaie GM, Binmeather FS, AlRasheed RA, Albarrak RM. Face masks use and its role in restraining the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: knowledge, attitude, and practices based cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2022;9:818520. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.818520

117. Hagag HM, Gharib AF, Hassan AF, Ismail KA, Ramadan RA, Khalifa OM. Exploration of Community Care Awareness about COVID-19 Sterilization. Clin Lab. 2022;68:1. doi:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.210520

118. Alshahrani A, Gautam AP, Asiri F, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice among physical therapists toward COVID-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia-A cross-sectional study. Healthcare. 2022;10:1.

119. Moussa ML, Moussa FL, Alharbi HA, et al. Association of fear of COVID-19 and health literacy among the general public in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional assessment. Front Public Health. 2021;9:740625. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.740625

120. Alkhotani AM, AlSindi TS, Alqurashi AA, et al. Public awareness of the neurological manifestation of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Neurosciences. 2022;27(1):10–15. doi:10.17712/nsj.2022.1.20210089

121. Alrefaei AF, Almaleki D, Alshehrei F, et al. Assessment of health awareness and knowledge toward SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 vaccines among residents of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Clin Epidemiol Glob Health. 2022;13:100935. doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2021.100935

122. Basheer SN, Vinothkumar TS, Albar NHM, et al. Knowledge of COVID-19 infection guidelines among the dental health care professionals of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(4):4. doi:10.3390/ijerph19042034

123. Ayat Z, Sami AH. Infection prevention and control practices among primary healthcare nurses regarding COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Ann Med Surg. 2022;77:103298. doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103298

124. Alanazi N, Bahjri K. Knowledge, attitude, and psychological impacts of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Front Public Health. 2022;10:801777. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.801777

125. Ritchie H, Mathieu E, Rodés-Guirao L, et al. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our world in data; 2020.

126. Meo SA. COVID-19 pandemic: Saudi arabia’s role at national and international levels. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2020;14(4):758–759. doi:10.1177/1932296820930068

127. Kumar R, Singh V, Mohanty A, Bahurupi Y, Gupta PK. Corona health-care warriors in India: knowledge, attitude, and practices during COVID-19 outbreak. J Educ Health Promot. 2021;10(1):44. doi:10.4103/jehp.jehp_524_20

128. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1745–1752. doi:10.7150/ijbs.45221

129. Jemal B, Aweke Z, Mola S, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthcare workers toward COVID-19 and its prevention in Ethiopia: a multicenter study. SAGE Open Med. 2021;9:20503121211034389. doi:10.1177/20503121211034389

130. Tien TQ, Tuyet-Hanh TT, Linh TNQ, Hai Phuc H, Van Nhu H. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding COVID-19 prevention among Vietnamese healthcare workers in 2020. Health Serv Insights. 2021;14:11786329211019225. doi:10.1177/11786329211019225

131. Paul E, Alzaydani Asiri IA, Al-Hakami A, et al. Healthcare workers’ perspectives on healthcare-associated infections and infection control practices: a video-reflexive ethnography study in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2020;9(1):110. doi:10.1186/s13756-020-00756-z

132. AlAmodi AA, Al-Kattan K, Shareef MA. The current global perspective of the knowledge-attitude-behavior of the general public towards the Corona virus disease −19 pandemic: systematic review and meta-analysis on 67,143 participants. PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0260240. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0260240

133. Alumran A. Role of precautionary measures in containing the natural course of novel Coronavirus disease. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2020;13:615–620. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S261643

134. Madani TA. Preventive strategies to keep Saudi Arabia SARS-free. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32(2):120–121. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2003.09.006

135. Almutairi KM, Al Helih EM, Moussa M, et al. Awareness, attitudes, and practices related to Coronavirus pandemic among public in Saudi Arabia. Fam Community Health. 2015;38(4):332–340. doi:10.1097/FCH.0000000000000082

136. Al Shehri AM. A lesson learned from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Med Teach. 2015;37(Suppl 1):S88–93. doi:10.3109/0142159X.2015.1006610

137. Nooh HZ, Alshammary RH, Alenezy JM, et al. Public awareness of coronavirus in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. Z Gesundh Wiss. 2020;29:1–8.

138. Hussain ZA, Hussain SA, Hussain FA. Medical students’ knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions towards the H1N1 influenza, swine flu, in Pakistan: a brief report. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40(3):e11–13. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.12.004

139. Clements JM. Knowledge and behaviors toward COVID-19 among US residents during the early days of the pandemic: cross-sectional online questionnaire. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19161. doi:10.2196/19161

140. Pennycook G, McPhetres J, Bago B, Rand DG. Beliefs about COVID-19 in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: a novel test of political polarization and motivated reasoning. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2021;48:750–765.

141. Saqlain M, Munir MM, Rehman SU, et al. Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers among healthcare workers regarding COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(3):419–423. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.007

142. Geldsetzer P. Use of rapid online surveys to assess people’s perceptions during infectious disease outbreaks: a cross-sectional survey on COVID-19. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(4):e18790. doi:10.2196/18790

143. Geldsetzer P. Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among the general public in the United States and the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional online survey. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):157–160. doi:10.7326/M20-0912

144. Haleem A, Javaid M, Vaishya R. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Curr Med Res Pract. 2020;10(2):78–79. doi:10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011

145. Naser AY, Dahmash EZ, Alsairafi ZK, et al. Knowledge and practices during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Middle East: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(9):9. doi:10.3390/ijerph18094699

146. Muto K, Yamamoto I, Nagasu M, Tanaka M, Wada K. Japanese citizens’ behavioral changes and preparedness against COVID-19: an online survey during the early phase of the pandemic. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0234292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234292

147. Nour S, Plourde G. Chapter 3 - Pharmacoepidemiology in the prevention of adverse drug reactions. In: Nour S, Plourde G, editors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance. Academic Press; 2019:25–65.

Creative Commons License © 2022 The Author(s). This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.