Simple Approaches for the Synthesis of AgNPs in Solution and Solid Phase Using Modified Methoxypolyethylene Glycol and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity
Received 3 January 2020
Accepted for publication 19 March 2020
Published 3 April 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 2353—2362
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Ayman El-Faham,1,2 Hessa H Al-Rasheed,1 Essam N Sholkamy,3 Sameh M Osman,1,4 Zeid A ALOthman1,4
1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, Alexandria 21321, Egypt; 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 4Advanced Materials Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence: Ayman El-Faham Tel +966114673195
Purpose: Simple methodology for preparation of metal nanoparticles such as AgNPs uses an methanolic aqueous medium at room temperature or a solvent-free procedure under microwave irradiation. The prepared AgNPs showed a significant antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi.
Methods: The modified methoxypolyethylene glycol bishydrazino-s-triazine (mPEGTH2) showed remarkable activity for reducing Ag+ to Ag0 in an aqueous methanolic solution and using a solvent-free method (solid phase) under microwave irradiation. In the solid phase synthesis, the size and shape of the AgNPs can be controlled by varying the weight ratio of mPEGTH2 to AgNO3 used. In addition, the antimicrobial activity depends on the ratio of mPEGTH2 to AgNO3. The mPEGTH2-AgNPs (2:1) demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity compared to mPEGTH2-AgNPs (1:1) against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and C.albicans.
Results: This work presents simple methods for the synthesis of AgNPs using modified methoxypolyethylene glycol with bishydrazino-s-triazine (mPEGTH2); a solution method, using methanol-water medium at room temperature, and a solvent-free (solid phase) method, employing microwave irradiation or direct heating which could be used for the preparation of AgNPs on large scale. In the solid phase, ratios of mPEGTH2 to AgNO3 (1:1 or 2:1, respectively) are very important to control the size and shape of AgNPs. While in solution phase is not necessary where the molar ratio used is 10:1. Most of the experimental methods resulted in AgNPs ranging in size from 7 to 10 nm as observed from XRD and TEM characterization. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was also dependent on the weight ratio of mPEGTH2 to AgNO3, with a large effect as observed when using the solvent-free method. The mPEGTH2-AgNPs (2:1) demonstrated higher antimicrobial activities compared to mPEGTH2-AgNPs (1:1) against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and C. albicans. In all cases, the MICs and MBCs of mPEGTH2-AgNPs (1:1) were lower than those of mPEGTH2-AgNPs (2:1).
Conclusion: In summary, mPEGTH2-AgNPs (2:1) is a promising candidate to kill pathogenic microbes. In particular, the method used for the preparation of AgNPs by using polyethylene glycol polymer modified with bishydrazino-s-triazine has the most potential and would be the most cost-effective method. This method of the synthesis of nanoparticles may be suitable for the preparation of other metal nanoparticles, which would allow for numerous applications in medicinal and industrial.
Keywords: methoxypolyethylene glycol bishydrazino-s-triazine, silver nanoparticles, solution phase, solid phase, antimicrobial activity