The Serum from Patients with Secondary Frozen Shoulder Following Rotator Cuff Repair Induces Shoulder Capsule Fibrosis and Promotes Macrophage Polarization and Fibroblast Activation
Received 30 January 2021
Accepted for publication 10 March 2021
Published 23 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1055—1068
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ning Quan
Yaying Sun,* Jinrong Lin,* Zhiwen Luo,* Yuhan Zhang, Jiwu Chen
Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Jiwu Chen
Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12# Middle Wulumuqi Road, Jing’an District, Shanghai, 200040, People’s Republic of China
Fax +86 21 52888255
Email [email protected]
Purpose: Disorders with systematic inflammation were prognostic for secondary frozen shoulder (sFS) following rotator cuff repair (RCR); however, how systematic inflammation affects sFS remains unclear. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of pre-operative serum from patients with sFS and the serum from those without on shoulder capsule in mice, and on macrophages and fibroblasts in vitro.
Methods: Serum samples of a consecutive cohort of patients for RCR were collected pre-operatively. Three months after RCR, patients who developed sFS (Group S) were identified. Serum samples from gender- and age-matched controls without sFS (group NS) were also picked out. Firstly, the effect of serum on shoulder capsule fibrosis was observed histologically and biomechanically in a mouse model of RCR. Secondly, the roles of the serum on macrophage polarization and fibroblast activation were investigated, and the potentially involved signaling pathways were identified. Finally, inflammation and fibrosis-related cytokines in serum were quantified.
Results: In our cohort, all patients had free pre-operative shoulder range of motion. Seven patients developed sFS at 3 months after surgery. Seven matched patients without sFS were selected as control. The inter-group difference of basic characteristics was not significant. Compared to the serum of group NS, the serum of group S significantly induced hypercellularity, capsular thickening, and range of motion deficiency in mice shoulders after RCR. Compared to the serum of group NS, samples of group S significantly promoted M2 polarization of THP-1 human macrophages and the activation of human capsule-derived fibroblasts. Meanwhile, Smad3 and p-Smad3 in macrophages and fibroblasts were significantly up-regulated. On the other hand, levels of inflammation and fibrosis-related cytokines were not significantly different between serum in group S and group NS.
Conclusion: Although all patients in this cohort had free range of motion pre-operatively, the pre-operative serum from patients with sFS at 3 months after RCR could act as a trigger of shoulder capsule fibrosis post-operatively. This effect may be related to its promotion on macrophage polarization to M2 phenotype and fibroblast activation.
Keywords: rotator cuff, secondary frozen shoulder, serum, macrophage, fibroblast
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