The Fear of Pain Questionnaire: psychometric properties of a Brazilian version for adolescents and its relationship with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
Received 21 December 2018
Accepted for publication 22 April 2019
Published 7 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 2487—2502
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael A Überall
José Ary Berniger Romariz,1,2 Cássio Nonnemacher,2 Mylena Abreu,2 Joice Dickel Segabinazi,2 Janete Shatkoski Bandeira,2 Gerardo Beltran,1–3 Andressa Souza,4 Iraci LS Torres,5 Wolnei Caumo1,2,6–8
1Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, Faculdade de Medicina,Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Pain and Neuromodulation, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Psychology Department, Cuenca Catholic University, Cuenca, Ecuador; 4Postgraduate Program in Health and Human Development, La Salle Universitary Center, Canoas, Brazil; 5Pharmacology Department, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 6Pain and Anesthesia,Surgery Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 7Pain and Palliative Care Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 8Laboratory of Pain and Neuromodulation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Objectives: The primary aim was to assess the psychometric properties (including internal consistency, construct validity, criterion validity, criterion-group validity and responsiveness) of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ) for adolescents (FOPQ-A) and parents (FOPQ-P) translated to Brazilian Portuguese (BrP). The secondary aim was to analyze the factor structures and their ability to identify subjects with chronic pain conditions and identify the relationship of the BrP FOPQ-A with saliva brain-derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF).
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 286 adolescents aged 11 to 18 (257 healthy adolescents [157 females] and 29 adolescents with chronic pain [16 females]). Parents and adolescents completed the BrP-FOPQ. A team of experts translated the FOPQ according to international guidelines. Convergent validity and factor analysis were performed. Later, a subsample (n=146) was used to correlate the BrP-FOPQ-A with saliva BDNF.
Results: The BrP-FOPQ for adolescents and parents presented strong psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α equal to 0.92 and 0.91, respectively). BrP-FOPQ-A confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor structure while the factorial analyses of BrP-FOPQ-P demonstrated that the best solution was a three-structure factorial. The BrP-FOPQ-P scores in healthy adolescents and those in chronic pain conditions was 34.13 (16.71) vs 43.14 (18.08), respectively. A generalized mixed model demonstrated that the scores in the BrP-FOPQ-A are higher in those with chronic pain conditions compared to healthy subjects (29.20 [12.77] vs 33.80 [10.76], respectively; Wald χ2= 17.80; df=1, P<0.0001). The model revealed that the BDNF was positively correlated with the score of BrP-FOPQ-A and subjects with chronic pain showed higher levels of BDNF.
Conclusion: The BrP-FOPQ scores for adolescents and parents were found to be psychometrically robust and reliable instruments, with primary evidence of validity. Higher scores on the BrP-FOPQ-A were correlated positively with saliva BDNF and permitted the identification of subjects with chronic pain conditions.
Keywords: chronic pain, BDNF, pain-related fear, adolescents, assessment
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