Prevention of Procedural Hypertension in the Irreversible Electroporation Ablation of Liver and Pancreatic Tumors Based on Distance from the Adrenal Gland
Authors Fang G, Niu L, Chen J
Received 18 October 2019
Accepted for publication 12 December 2019
Published 7 January 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 71—78
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonella D'Anneo
Gang Fang, Lizhi Niu, Jibing Chen
Fuda Cancer Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510665, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Jibing Chen
Fuda Cancer Hospital of Jinan University, No. 2 Of Tangdexi Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510665, People’s Republic of China
Background and objective: When irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation of abdominal tumors, procedural hypertension often occurs, which often affects the progress of the ablation. Until now, there is no reasonable explanation for this phenomenon. The objective of this research was to explore the cause and solution of procedural hypertension in percutaneous IRE.
Methods: In this study, the treatment data of 4 consecutive groups of patients were used to confirm the cause of intraoperative hypertension and then verify the solution. A total of 155 patients with procedural hypertension were screened based on their medical records of pancreatic or hepatic IRE treatment. Procedural hypertension was monitored in 21 new patients, the correlation between serum catecholamines and hypertension was recorded and evaluated using regression analysis. Forty new patients were divided into two groups (distance from needle tip to adrenal gland, < 2 cm vs ≥ 2 cm), and the blood pressure was recorded and compared with two-way ANOVA. Eleven patients with ablative distance < 2 cm were treated in advance with phentolamine to observe for the occurrence of procedural hypertension.
Results: Of the 21 re-enrolled patients with ablation of the pancreas and liver tumors, 9 developed intraoperative hypertension with significantly elevated serum catecholamines levels, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine are all positively associated with hypertension, with P values were 0.0003, 0.0253, and 0.0015, respectively. For the two groups with different needle-insertion distances, hypertension in the < 2 cm group was more significant than that in the other group (for procedural hypertension, P< 0.01; for heart rate, P< 0.05), which was considered as a high-risk group. The occurrence of intraoperative hypertension could be completely prevented by using phentolamine prior to treatment.
Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during hepatic and pancreatic IRE because of the damage of adrenal gland. The safe distance of ablation probe for the adrenal gland was 2 cm. For high-risk patients, early drug prevention works well.
Keywords: irreversible electroporation, abdominal tumor, procedural hypertension, adrenal gland, catecholamine, risky distance
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