Precisely Fabricated Sulpiride-Loaded Nanolipospheres with Ameliorated Oral Bioavailability and Antidepressant Activity
Received 12 December 2020
Accepted for publication 28 January 2021
Published 9 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 2013—2044
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Salma M Mohyeldin,1 Wael M Samy,1 Doaa Ragab,1 Doaa A Abdelmonsif,2,3 Rania G Aly,4 Nazik A Elgindy1,5
1Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Centre of Excellence for Research in Regenerative Medicine and Applications, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Department of Surgical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt
Correspondence: Salma M Mohyeldin
Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, 1-Azarita Square, Alexandria, Egypt
Tel +20 1008024214
Fax +20 3 4873273
Email [email protected]
Background: Sulpiride (SUL), is a selective antidopaminergic drug that had extensive biological activities. However, its sparingly aqueous solubility and limited gastrointestinal permeability lead to scanty oral bioavailability which hinders its clinical efficacy.
Objective: SUL-loaded lipospheres (SUL-LPS) were designed to serve as an oral biocompatible nanovector for improving SUL permeability as well as conquering its low oral absorption and then in turn enhancing its antidepressant action.
Methods: SUL-LPS were fabricated via two processing techniques namely, melt emulsification and solvent evaporation. The impact of different lipid cores, phospholipid shells together with various surfactant concentrations and types on the lipospheres properties were screened. Detailed physicochemical elucidations were performed followed by ex vivo permeation appraisal using the non-everted intestine model. The pharmacokinetic parameters of SUL-LPS, free SUL and marketed product were assessed following oral administration to healthy rats. Reserpine-induced depression rat model was used to assess the antidepressant action of SUL-LPS on which full behavioural and biochemical analysis was conducted. Safety attributes of nanoencapsulated SUL on the brain and other internal organs were evaluated.
Results: The optimum LPS revealed an excellent nanosize with a narrow PdI, negative zeta potential and acceptable entrapment efficiency of 68.62 nm, 0.242, − 30.4 mV and 84.12%, respectively. SUL-LPS showed a sustained release pattern and 2.1-fold enhancement in the intestinal permeation parameters with low mucin interaction. Oral pharmacokinetic appraisal exhibited that LPS provided 3.4-fold improvement in SUL oral bioavailability together with long-circulating properties, relative to the free drug. Pharmacodynamic study confirmed the superior antidepressant action of SUL-LPS as evident by 1.6 and 1.25-fold elevation in the serotonin and dopamine expressions, respectively. Meanwhile, nanotoxicological appraisal proved the biocompatibility of SUL-LPS upon repetitive oral administration.
Conclusion: Rationally designed lipospheres hold promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics for efficient delivery of SUL with high oral bioavailability, antidepressant activity together with a good safety profile.
Keywords: sulpiride, lipospheres, ex vivo permeation, bioavailability, depression, toxicity
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