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Patient-level costs of major cardiovascular conditions: a review of the international literature

Authors Nicholson G, Gandra S, Halbert R, Richarriya A, Nordyke R

Received 27 May 2015

Accepted for publication 31 March 2016

Published 21 September 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 495—506


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Giorgio Lorenzo Colombo

Gina Nicholson,1 Shravanthi R Gandra,2 Ronald J Halbert,1 Akshara Richhariya,2 Robert J Nordyke1

1ICON, El Segundo, 2Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA

Objective: Robust cost estimates of cardiovascular (CV) events are required for assessing health care interventions aimed at reducing the economic burden of major adverse CV events. This review synthesizes international cost estimates of CV events.
Methods: MEDLINE database was searched electronically for English language studies published during 2007-2012, with cost estimates for CV events of interest – unstable angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and CV revascularization. Included studies provided at least one estimate of patient-level direct costs in adults for any identified country. Information on study characteristics and cost estimates were collected. All costs were adjusted for inflation to 2013 values.
Results: Across the 114 studies included, the average cost was US $6,466 for unstable angina, $11,664 for acute myocardial infarction, $11,686 for acute heart failure, $11,635 for acute ischemic stroke, $37,611 for coronary artery bypass graft, and $13,501 for percutaneous coronary intervention. The ranges for cost estimates varied widely across countries with US cost estimate being at least twice as high as European Union costs for some conditions. Few studies were found on populations outside the US and European Union.
Conclusion: This review showed wide variation in the cost of CV events within and across countries, while showcasing the continuing economic burden of CV disease. The variability in costs was primarily attributable to differences in study population, costing methodologies, and reporting differences. Reliable cost estimates for assessing economic value of interventions in CV disease are needed.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health care costs, hospitalization economics, follow-up studies

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