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Molecular Mechanisms of Salmonella Effector Proteins: A Comprehensive Review

Authors Azimi T, Zamirnasta M, Sani MA, Soltan Dallal MM, Nasser A

Received 11 September 2019

Accepted for publication 20 December 2019

Published 6 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 11—26


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Eric Nulens

Taher Azimi,1,2 Maryam Zamirnasta,3 Mahmood Alizadeh Sani,4,5 Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal,6 Ahmad Nasser3,6,7

1Pediatric Infections Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Students Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam, Iran; 4Food Safety and Hygiene Division, Environmental health Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Students Research Committee, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 6Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 7Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam, Iran

Correspondence: Ahmad Nasser
Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Science, P.O. Box 14473-13324, Ilam, Iran
Tel +98 9166438900

Abstract: Salmonella can be categorized into many serotypes, which are specific to known hosts or broadhosts. It makes no difference which one of the serotypes would penetrate the gastrointestinal tract because they all face similar obstacles such as mucus and microbiome. However, following their penetration, some species remain in the gastrointestinal tract; yet, others spread to another organ like gallbladder. Salmonella is required to alter the immune response to sustain its intracellular life. Changing the host response requires particular effector proteins and vehicles to translocate them. To this end, a categorized gene called Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) was developed; genes like Salmonella pathogenicity island encode aggressive or modulating proteins. Initially, Salmonella needs to be attached and stabilized via adhesin factor, without which no further steps can be taken. In this review, an attempt has been made to elaborate on each factor attached to the host cell or to modulating and aggressive proteins that evade immune systems. This review includes four sections: (A) attachment factors or T3SS- independent entrance, (B) effector proteins or T3SS-dependent entrance, (c) regulation of invasive genes, and (D) regulation of immune responses.

Keywords: Salmonella, effector proteins, immune response, T3SS, pathogenesis

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