Back to Journals » Nature and Science of Sleep » Volume 11

Insufficient Sleep Duration And Its Association With Breakfast Intake, Overweight/Obesity, Socio-Demographics And Selected Lifestyle Behaviors Among Saudi School Children

Authors Al-Hazzaa HM, Alhussain MH, Alhowikan AM, Obeid OA

Received 3 August 2019

Accepted for publication 20 September 2019

Published 25 October 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 253—263


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven A Shea

Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa,1 Maha H Alhussain,2 Abdulrahman M Alhowikan,3 Omar A Obeid4

1Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11673, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Foods & Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Correspondence: Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa
Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P. O. Box: 93216, Riyadh 11673, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966 11 8244816

Objective: Adequate sleep is an important factor for maintaining good health among children. However, there have been few studies reporting on the association of sleep duration with breakfast intake frequency. This study examined the prevalence of nocturnal sleep duration among Saudi children and its association with breakfast intake, screen time, physical activity levels and socio-demographic variables.
Methods: A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select 1051 elementary school children in Riyadh. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was computed. The sleep duration, daily breakfast intake frequency, socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviors were assessed using a specifically designed self-reported questionnaire filled by the children’s parents.
Results: Over 71% of the Saudi school children did not attain the recommended sufficient sleep duration at night. Results of logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, exhibited significant associations between longer sleep duration and younger age (aOR=1.12, p=0.046), being female (aOR=1.39, p=0.037), higher father educational levels, daily breakfast intake (aOR=1.44, p=0.049) and lower screen time (aOR for >2 hrs/day=0.69, p=0.033). However, no significant (p> 0.05) association was found for mother education, family income, number of family member in the house, overweight/obesity, or physical activity levels.
Conclusion: The prevalence of insufficient nocturnal sleep among Saudi children was high. Insufficient sleep was associated with breakfast and several important socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviors. The findings of this study support the development of interventions to prevent insufficient sleep and help Saudi children improve their sleeping habits.

Keywords: children, skipping breakfast, lifestyles, Saudi Arabia, socio-demographics

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]