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Insufficient Sleep Duration And Its Association With Breakfast Intake, Overweight/Obesity, Socio-Demographics And Selected Lifestyle Behaviors Among Saudi School Children

Authors Al-Hazzaa HM, Alhussain MH, Alhowikan AM, Obeid OA

Received 3 August 2019

Accepted for publication 20 September 2019

Published 25 October 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 253—263

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S225883

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Rachel Predeepa

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven A Shea


Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa,1 Maha H Alhussain,2 Abdulrahman M Alhowikan,3 Omar A Obeid4

1Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11673, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Foods & Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Correspondence: Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa
Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P. O. Box: 93216, Riyadh 11673, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966 11 8244816
Email halhazzaa@hotmail.com

Objective: Adequate sleep is an important factor for maintaining good health among children. However, there have been few studies reporting on the association of sleep duration with breakfast intake frequency. This study examined the prevalence of nocturnal sleep duration among Saudi children and its association with breakfast intake, screen time, physical activity levels and socio-demographic variables.
Methods: A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select 1051 elementary school children in Riyadh. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was computed. The sleep duration, daily breakfast intake frequency, socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviors were assessed using a specifically designed self-reported questionnaire filled by the children’s parents.
Results: Over 71% of the Saudi school children did not attain the recommended sufficient sleep duration at night. Results of logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, exhibited significant associations between longer sleep duration and younger age (aOR=1.12, p=0.046), being female (aOR=1.39, p=0.037), higher father educational levels, daily breakfast intake (aOR=1.44, p=0.049) and lower screen time (aOR for >2 hrs/day=0.69, p=0.033). However, no significant (p> 0.05) association was found for mother education, family income, number of family member in the house, overweight/obesity, or physical activity levels.
Conclusion: The prevalence of insufficient nocturnal sleep among Saudi children was high. Insufficient sleep was associated with breakfast and several important socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviors. The findings of this study support the development of interventions to prevent insufficient sleep and help Saudi children improve their sleeping habits.

Keywords: children, skipping breakfast, lifestyles, Saudi Arabia, socio-demographics


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