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Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

Authors Mahmood D, Linderoth E, Wennerberg A, Vult Von Steyern P

Received 13 August 2015

Accepted for publication 6 November 2015

Published 12 February 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 15—27

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S94343

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Mary Anne Melo

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Christopher Okunseri


Deyar Jallal Hadi Mahmood, Ewa H Linderoth, Ann Wennerberg, Per Vult Von Steyern

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden

Aim: To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores.
Materials and methods: A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture.
Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values.
Conclusion: The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of the fracture pattern shows differences between the milled veneers and over-pressed or built-up veneers, where the milled ones show numerically more veneer cracks and the other groups only show complete connector fractures.

Keywords:
all-ceramic FDPs, connector design radius, state-of-the-art, CAD/CAM, multilayer technique, veneering ceramic techniques

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