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Infectious bursal disease virus in chickens: prevalence, impact, and management strategies

Authors Dey S, Pathak DC, Ramamurthy N, Maity HK, Chellappa MM

Received 3 May 2019

Accepted for publication 16 June 2019

Published 5 August 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 85—97


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo

Sohini Dey, Dinesh C Pathak, Narayan Ramamurthy, Hemanta Kumar Maity, Madhan Mohan Chellappa

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India

Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro disease, is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease of young chickens. Although first observed about 60 years ago, to date, the disease is responsible for major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. IBD virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus, exists as two serotypes with only serotype 1 causing the disease in young chickens. The virus infects the bursa of Fabricius of particularly the actively dividing and differentiating lymphocytes of the B-cells lineage of immature chickens, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression enhances the susceptibility of chickens to other infections and interferes with vaccination against other diseases. Immunization is the most important measure to control IBD; however, rampant usage of live vaccines has resulted in the evolution of new strains. Although the immunosuppression caused by IBDV is more directed toward the B lymphocytes, the protective immunity in birds depends on inducement of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The interference with the inactivated vaccine induced maternally derived antibodies in young chicks has become a hurdle in controlling the disease, thus necessitating the development of newer vaccines with improved efficacy. The present review illustrates the overall dynamics of the virus and the disease, and the recent developments in the field of virus diagnosis and vaccine research.

Keywords: infectious bursal disease, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, vaccines

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