EACOL (Scale of Evaluation of Reading Competence by the Teacher): evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity
Hugo Cogo-Moreira,1 George B Ploubidis,2 Clara Regina Brandão de Ávila,3 Jair de Jesus Mari,1 Angela Maria Vieira Pinheiro4
1Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Population Studies, University of London, London, UK; 3Department of Hearing and Speech Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Aim: The study aimed to provide information about the concurrent and discriminant validation of the Scale of Evaluation of Reading Competence by the Teacher (EACOL), which is composed of 27 dichotomous items concerning reading aloud (17 items) and reading silently (10 items).
Samples: Three samples were used in this validation study. The first was composed of 335 students with an average age of 9.75 years (SD = 1.2) from Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State), Brazil, where the full spectrum of reading ability was assessed. The second two samples were from São Paulo city (São Paulo State), Brazil, where only children with reading difficulties were recruited. The first São Paulo sample was labeled “SP-screening” and had n = 617, with a mean age of 9.8 years (SD = 1.0), and the other sample was labeled “SP-trial” and had n = 235, with a mean age of 9.15 years (SD = 0.05).
Methods: Results were obtained from a latent class analysis LCA, in which two latent groups were obtained as solutions, and were correlated with direct reading measures. Also, students’ scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire tested the discriminant validation.
Results: Latent groups of readers underlying the EACOL predicted all direct reading measures, while the same latent groups showed no association with behavior and intelligence assessments, giving concurrent and discriminant validity to EACOL, respectively.
Conclusion: EACOL is a reliable screening tool which can be used by a wide range of professionals for assessing reading skills.
Keywords: school children, latent class analysis, assessment, reading difficulties, validation
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