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Contagious Agalactia In Sheep And Goats: Current Perspectives

Authors Jaÿ M, Tardy F

Received 15 September 2019

Accepted for publication 7 November 2019

Published 27 December 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 229—247

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S201847

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo


Maryne Jaÿ, Florence Tardy

Université de Lyon, ANSES, Laboratoire de Lyon, VetAgro Sup, UMR Mycoplasmoses des Ruminants, Lyon 69364, France

Correspondence: Florence Tardy
ANSES Laboratoire de Lyon, UMR Mycoplasmoses des Ruminants, 31 Avenue Tony Garnier Lyon Cedex 07 69364, France
Tel +33 4 78 69 68 43
Email florence.tardy@anses.fr

Abstract: Contagious agalactia (CA) is a disease caused equally by four Mycoplasma species, in single or mixed infections. Clinical signs are multiple, including mastitis, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, and septicemia, non-specific, and expressed differently depending whether sheep or goats are affected, on causative mycoplasmas as well as type of husbandry. CA has been reported worldwide and its geographic distribution maps to that of small ruminant breeding areas. However, as current diagnostic tests are expensive and difficult to implement, it is certainly underdiagnosed and prevalence data are only available for a few countries. CA control relies on vaccines, chemotherapy and good herd management practices. It requires long-term commitment but is often unsuccessful, with frequent clinical relapses. The persistence of the etiological agents, despite their overall susceptibility to antimicrobials, comes from their genetic plasticity and capacity to escape the host immune response. The existence of asymptomatic carriers and the numerous sources of infections contribute to rapid spread of the disease and complicate the control and prevention efforts. Here we review all these aspects in order to highlight recent progress made and identify gaps in knowledge or tools needed for better disease management. Discussion also underlines the detrimental effect of contagious agalactia on small ruminant welfare.

Keywords: contagious agalactia, mycoplasma, disease prevention and control, diagnosis, pathogenicity and infection course, epidemiology

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