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Clinical Role of Serum Interleukin-17A in the Prediction of Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children

Authors Zhao J, Ji X, Wang Y, Wang X

Received 26 November 2019

Accepted for publication 22 February 2020

Published 12 March 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 835—843


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Eric Nulens

Jiuling Zhao, 1–3 Xin Ji, 4 Yushui Wang, 1 Xin Wang 1

1Department of Pediatrics, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pediatrics, Nankai Hospital Affiliated to Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Nankai Clinical School, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Medical English and Health Communication, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Jiuling Zhao
Department of Pediatrics, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, 122 Sanweilu, Nankai, Tianjin 300100, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86-22-27435137
Fax +86-22-27435001

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a common community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, which may become refractory MPP (RMPP) to treatment.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of measuring serum interleukin (IL)-17A to predict RMPP.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective clinical study at a single pediatric center included a review of the medical records of all children hospitalized for CAP between November 2015 and October 2019. The diagnosis of MPP was based on clinical presentation, chest radiography, and measurement of serum anti-Mycoplasma immunoglobulin IgM antibody titer using the microparticle agglutination method or sputum samples for Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR. Serum levels of IL-18 and IL-17A were determined by ELISA.
Results: Of the 625 children diagnosed with CAP, there were 154 children with MPP and without underlying diseases who were divided into a non-refractory MPP (NRMPP) group (n = 109) and a RMPP group (n = 45). The RMPP group had a higher incidence of tachypnea, cyanosis, hypoxia, segmental or lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, and a longer period of hospitalization compared with NRMPP group (all P-values < 0.05). A serum IL-17A level above 10.8 pg/mL was a predictor for RMPP: area under the curve (AUC) 0.822; standard error (SE) 0.039; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.746– 0.897; diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 77.1%, respectively. An LDH level above 436.5 IU/L and an IL-18 level above 464.5 pg/mL were the second most useful markers for RMPP: AUC 0.775, 0.775; SE 0.038, 0.039; 95% CI 0.700– 0.850, 0.698– 0.852; sensitivity 77.8%, 82.2%; specificity 62.4%, 59.6%; respectively.
Conclusion: This preliminary study of MPP in a pediatric population has shown that measurement of serum IL-17A may be a useful marker for the predictor of RMPP.

Keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, pneumonia, refractory pneumonia, interleukin-17A

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