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A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese

Authors Koster L, Kirberger R

Received 20 July 2015

Accepted for publication 30 December 2015

Published 23 February 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 19—31


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo

Liza S Köster,1 Robert M Kirberger2

1Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Integrative Mammalian Research (IMR) Center, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Diagnostic Imaging Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa

Abstract: This paper describes 35 Pekingese dogs with a syndrome characterized by dyspnea, cyanosis, episodic syncope, soft pulmonary “Velcro” crackles, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and computed tomography and radiographic changes consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease. The medical data base was searched with the criteria “Pekingese” and “syncope” or “dyspnea” or “tachypnea” or “pulmonary hypertension”, over a 36-month period. Inclusion criteria were echocardiographic changes consistent with noninvasive diagnosis of PH, either subjectively by B-mode or objectively by Doppler. Dogs were excluded (n=106) if there were insufficient or poor-quality radiographic or echocardiographic records or if diseases other than chronic pulmonary disease were found to be the etiology. The records of 35 dogs met these criteria and presented with a respiratory crises preceded by a history of chronic exercise intolerance and episodic syncope. The average age was 14.5 years (range: 7–19 years), with 21 males and 14 females. Most of the dogs had an interstitial lung pattern with radiographic evidence of right heart enlargement. There was a 77% (n=27) mortality and a median survival of 60 days (interquartile range: 9–210 days). This study highlights a cor pulmonale syndrome from PH due to chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease, with a grave prognosis, in middle-aged to geriatric population of Hong Kong Pekingese.

Keywords: computed tomography, interstitial lung disease, dog, syncope

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