Vitamins D, C, and E in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress
Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy2, Pierre S Haddad3, Paul Arora1,4, Firas BenZaied5, Mohamed Karmali1,2,4, Alaa Badawi1
1Office for Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Natural Health Products and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal and Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, ON, Canada
Abstract: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide, and certain population subgroups are especially vulnerable to the disease. To reduce T2DM risk and progression at the population level, preventative strategies are needed that can be implemented on a population-wide scale with minimal cost and effort. Chronic low-grade inflammation resulting from oxidative stress and imbalances in the innate immune system has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance – critical stages in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, inflammation may play a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reducing it via modulation of oxidative stress and the innate immune response could lead to a status of improved insulin sensitivity and delayed disease onset. Dietary supplementation with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutritional factors, such as micronutrients, might present a novel strategy toward the prevention and control of T2DM at the population level. This review examines current knowledge linking oxidation, inflammatory signaling pathways, and vitamin supplementation or intake to the risk of T2DM. The concept that micronutrients, via attenuation of inflammation, could be employed as a novel preventive measure for T2DM is evaluated in the context of its relevance to public health.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, oxidative stress, innate immunity, inflammation, micronutrients
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