Vigilance for pain-related faces in a primary task paradigm: an ERP study
Stefan Lautenbacher,1 Oliver Dittmar,1 Corinna Baum,1,2 Raphaela Schneider,1 Edmund Keogh,3 Miriam Kunz1
1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Psychology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; 3Centre for Pain Research and Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Background: Pain-related stimuli are supposed to be automatically prioritized over other stimuli. This prioritization has often been tested using primary task paradigms in which pain information is irrelevant for completing the explicitly posed task. Task-irrelevant stimuli are only processed if they are very salient, and pain-related stimuli are assumed to be salient enough.
Objective: We wanted to further investigate this assumption by assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) – a very sensitive method for studying attention and reaction times in response to pictures of people in pain and other emotional faces – using a primary task paradigm. In addition, we assumed that individuals describing themselves as vigilant to pain are especially responsive to pain cues.
Methods: One hundred pain-free subjects were tested in a primary task paradigm using pictures of facial expressions of pain, anger, happiness, and neutral mood. ERPs were assessed at midline electrodes. Vigilance to pain was assessed by the pain vigilance and awareness questionnaire.
Results: In contrast to previous studies (which have used pain words), effects of facial expressions of pain and other emotions on the ERPs and reaction times were surprisingly weak throughout and did not give evidence for a distinct processing of pain-related stimuli. However, hypervigilant subjects appeared to be strongly and cognitively absorbed by all emotional stimuli.
Conclusion: Accordingly, it appears that pain-related stimuli are not always of outstanding salience, but that certain characteristics (eg, type of material, emotional richness) have to be present, for pain-related stimuli to be prioritized over stimuli of other emotional content. Hypervigilance to pain may generally predispose individuals to process emotional stimuli in greater depth.
Keywords: hypervigilance for pain, ERP, LPC, pain face, primary task
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]