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Vemurafenib: an evidence-based review of its clinical utility in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

Authors Swaika A, Crozier JA, Joseph R

Received 14 February 2014

Accepted for publication 25 March 2014

Published 16 June 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 775—787

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S31143

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Abhisek Swaika, Jennifer A Crozier, Richard W Joseph

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA

Abstract: The discovery of BRAF mutations in the majority of patients with metastatic melanoma combined with the identification of highly selective BRAF inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. The first highly specific BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, began clinical testing in 2008 and moved towards a rapid approval in 2011. Vemurafenib induced responses in ~50% of patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma and demonstrated improved overall survival in a randomized Phase III trial. Furthermore, vemurafenib is well-tolerated with a low toxicity profile and rapid onset of action. Finally, vemurafenib is active even in patients with widely metastatic disease. Despite the success of vemurafenib in treating patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, most, if not all, patients ultimately develop resistance resulting in disease progression at a median time of ~6 months. Multiple mechanisms of resistance have been described and rationale strategies are underway to combat resistance. This review highlights the development, clinical utility, resistance mechanisms, and future use of vemurafenib both in melanoma and other malignancies. We consulted PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, ASCO annual symposium abstracts, and http://clinicaltrials.gov/for the purpose of this review.

Keywords: resistance, vemurafenib, BRAFV600E, immunotherapy

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