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Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

Authors Hill JW, Tansavatdi K, Lockett KL, Allen GO, Takita C, Pollack A, Hu JJ

Published 30 April 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 39—48

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S4548

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3


Jeff W Hill1, Kristina Tansavatdi4, Kristin L Lockett4, Glenn O Allen1, Cristiane Takita2, Alan Pollack2, Jennifer J Hu1,3

1Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Abstract: Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with prolonged cell cycle G2 delay following ionizing radiation (IR) treatment and breast cancer risk. However, different studies reported conflicting results examining the association between post-IR cell cycle delay and breast cancer risk utilizing four different parameters: cell cycle G2 delay index, %G2–M, G2/G0–G1, and (G2/G0–G1)/S. Therefore, we evaluated whether different parameters may influence study results using a data set from 118 breast cancer cases and 225 controls as well as lymphoblastoid and breast cancer cell lines with different genetic defects. Our results suggest that cell cycle G2 delay index may serve as the best parameter in assessing breast cancer risk, genetic regulation of IR-sensitivity, and mutations of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and TP53. Cell cycle delay in 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers was not different from that in controls. We also showed that IR-induced DNA-damage signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) was inversely associated with cell cycle G2 delay index. In summary, the cellular responses to IR are extremely complex; mutations or genetic variations in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair contribute to cell cycle G2 delay and breast cancer risk. The cell cycle G2 delay assay characterized in this study may help identify subpopulations with elevated risk of breast cancer or susceptibility to adverse effects in normal tissue following radiotherapy.

Keywords: breast cancer, ionizing radiation sensitivity, cell cycle, G2 delay, radiotherapy

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