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Undernutrition and associated factors among HIV-positive adult patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in the Arba Minch area, southern Ethiopia

Authors Zemede Z, Tariku B, Kote M, Estifanos W

Received 2 January 2019

Accepted for publication 21 February 2019

Published 1 July 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 147—154

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S200120

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya


Zale Zemede,1 Befikadu Tariku,2 Mesfin Kote,2 Wubshet Estifanos3

1Arba Minch Zuria District Health Office, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Public Health, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Background: Undernutrition constitutes an important threat to the success of HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa, and failure to effectively address it may jeopardize the benefits gained so far in the fight against HIV. The aim of the study was to assess undernutrition and associated factors among HIV-positive adult patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Arba Minch area, south Ethiopia.
Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017. There were 351 adult individual study participants who were enrolled in ART clinics in Arba Minch area public health facilities. Variables with P-value less than 0.25 on binary logistic regression analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model to outline the independent predictors of undernutrition. CI of 95% was used to assess precision of the study.
Results: Out of all the participants, 18.23% (95% CI: 14.52–22.65) were undernourished. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly lower among those consuming food from five or more food groups per day (AOR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16–0.71) and undergoing ART for more than a year (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08–0.73). On the contrary, the prevalence was significantly higher among those who were currently smoking tobacco (AOR: 6.67; 95% CI: 1.45–30.76). In addition, those with WHO clinical stage 3 had a significantly higher prevalence of undernutrition compared to those with WHO clinical stage 1 (AOR: 311; 95% CI: 1.47–6.60).
Conclusion: The prevalence of undernutrition was high among adults with HIV/AIDS enrolled in ART clinics in the study area. The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those who consumed diverse food groups and had been receiving ART for longer (more than a year).On the contrary, the prevalence of undernutrition was higher among those who consumed tobacco and with higher WHO clinical stage. Therefore, efforts should be made to enhance the dietary diversity of these individuals.

Keywords: ART, undernutrition, malnutrition, dietary diversity score, DSS, WHO clinical stage


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