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Underdiagnosis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective study

Authors Almagro P, Lapuente A, Pareja J, Yun S, Garcia ME, Padilla F, Heredia JL, De la Sierra A, Soriano JB

Received 12 March 2015

Accepted for publication 7 May 2015

Published 16 July 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1353—1361

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S84482

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Pere Almagro,1 Anna Lapuente,2 Julia Pareja,1 Sergi Yun,1 Maria Estela Garcia,3 Ferrán Padilla,4 Josep Ll Heredia,2 Alex De la Sierra,1 Joan B Soriano5

1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Pneumology Service, Mutua de Terrassa University Hospital, Terrassa, Spain; 3Medical Department, Menarini Pharmaceutical, Barcelona, Spain; 4Cardiology Service, Mutua de Terrassa University Hospital, Terrassa, Spain; 5Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Background: Retrospective studies based on clinical data and without spirometric confirmation suggest a poorer prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of undiagnosed COPD in these patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD – previously or newly diagnosed – in patients with IHD treated with PCI.
Methods: Patients with IHD confirmed by PCI were consecutively included. After PCI they underwent forced spirometry and evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors. All-cause mortality, new cardiovascular events, and their combined endpoint were analyzed.
Results: A total of 133 patients (78%) male, with a mean (SD) age of 63 (10.12) years were included. Of these, 33 (24.8%) met the spirometric criteria for COPD, of whom 81.8% were undiagnosed. IHD patients with COPD were older, had more coronary vessels affected, and a greater history of previous myocardial infarction. Median follow-up was 934 days (interquartile range [25%–75%]: 546–1,160). COPD patients had greater mortality (P=0.008; hazard ratio [HR]: 8.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76–44.47) and number of cardiovascular events (P=0.024; HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04–3.33), even those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (P=0.01; HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.12–2.83). These differences remained after adjustment for sex, age, number of coronary vessels affected, and previous myocardial infarction (P=0.025; HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.08–3.1).
Conclusion: Prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD in patients with IHD who undergo PCI are both high. These patients have an independent greater mortality and a higher number of cardiovascular events during follow-up.

Keywords: ischemic heart disease, mortality, myocardial infarction, prognosis

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