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Ultrasmall superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: honey-based green and facile synthesis and in vitro viability assay

Authors Rasouli E, Jeffrey Basirun W, Rezayi M, Shameli K, Nourmohammadi E, Khandanlou R, Izadiyan Z, Khoshdel Sarkarizi H

Received 25 November 2017

Accepted for publication 31 May 2018

Published 26 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 6903—6911

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S158083

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Elisa Rasouli,1 Wan Jeffrey Basirun,2 Majid Rezayi,3,4 Kamyar Shameli,5 Esmail Nourmohammadi,6 Roshanak Khandanlou,7 Zahra Izadiyan,5 Hoda Khoshdel Sarkarizi8

1Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 4Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 5Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 6Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 7School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Health, Science and the Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia; 8Department of Anatomical Sciences and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3O4-NPs was also studied.
Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Results:
The XRD analysis indicated the presence of pure Fe3O4-NPs while the TEM images indicated that the Fe3O4-NPs are spherical with a diameter range between 3.21 and 2.22 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were enhanced with the decrease in the percentage of honey. In vitro viability evaluation of Fe3O4-NPs performed by using the MTT assay on the WEHI164 cells demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm, which allows them to be used in some biological applications such as drug delivery.
Conclusion:
The presented synthesis method can be used for the controlled synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs, which could be found to be important in applications in biotechnology, biosensor and biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging and catalysis.

Keywords:
honey, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, green synthesis, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic properties, in vitro, viability, MTT assay, WEHI164 cells

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