Tumor necrosis factor-α and -β genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor in Saudi patients with schizophrenia
Authors Kadasah S, Arfin M, Rizvi S, Al-Asmari M, Al-Asmari A
Received 27 December 2016
Accepted for publication 13 February 2017
Published 12 April 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1081—1088
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Saeed Kadasah,1 Misbahul Arfin,2 Sadaf Rizvi,2 Mohammed Al-Asmari,2 Abdulrahman Al-Asmari2
1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Scientific Research Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Background: Schizophrenia is one of the most common devastating psychiatric disorders that negatively affects the quality of life and psychosocial functions. Its etiology involves the interplay of complex polygenic influences and environmental risk factors. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of proinflammatory cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (-308G/A) and TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms with schizophrenia susceptibility.
Subjects and methods: TNF-α and TNF-β genes were amplified using amplification refractory mutation system primers in 180 schizophrenia patients and 200 healthy matched controls recruited from the Psychiatry Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TNF-α (-308G/A) and TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms in patients were compared with those in controls.
Results: The frequencies of TNF-α (-308) allele A and genotype GA were significantly higher, while those of allele G and genotype GG were lower in schizophrenia patients as compared to controls, indicating that genotype GA and allele A of TNF-α (-308G/A) may increase susceptibility to schizophrenia, while genotype GG and allele G may reduce it. On the other hand, the distribution of alleles and genotypes of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphism does not differ significantly in patients from controls; however, the frequency of genotype GG of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in male patients than in female patients. The distribution of TNF-α (-308G/A) and TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms was almost similar in schizophrenia patients with negative or positive symptoms.
Conclusion: TNF-α (-308G/A) and TNF-β (+252G/A) polymorphisms may increase the susceptibility to schizophrenia in Saudi patients and could be a potential risk factor for its etiopathogenesis. However, further studies are warranted involving a larger sample size to strengthen our findings.
Keywords: schizophrenia, tumor necrosis factor, gene polymorphism, genetics, psychiatric disorder
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