Tumor heterogeneity as a rationale for a multi-epitope approach in an autologous renal cell cancer tumor vaccine
Authors Wittke S, Baxmann S, Fahlenkamp D, Kiessig S
Received 10 July 2015
Accepted for publication 9 December 2015
Published 27 January 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 523—537
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ashok Kumar Pandurangan
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Geoffrey Pietersz
Stefan Wittke,1 Susann Baxmann,2 Dirk Fahlenkamp,3 Stephan T Kiessig2
1University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven, Faculty of Biotechnology Bremerhaven, 2Ruhr-Plasma-Centre GmbH, Bochum, 3Department of Urology, Zeisigwald Bethanien Hospital, Chemnitz, Germany
Purpose: An autologous tumor vaccine already used successfully in the immune therapy of renal cell carcinoma was investigated in detail. The evaluation of potential tumor markers should allow for the assessment of potency according to pharmaceutical regulations.
Methods: A panel of 36 tumor-associated antigens and cellular marker proteins was characterized in a total of 133 tumor cell lysates by methods such as ELISA, Western blots, and topological proteomics. The induction of tumor-associated antigen-specific antibodies was demonstrated by immunization in mice.
Results: Tumor heterogeneity was demonstrated: none of the tumor-associated antigens investigated were detectable in each tumor lysate. In parallel, the coincidental presence of potential danger signals was shown for HSP-60 and HSP-70. The presence of both antigen and danger signal allowed a successful induction of an immune response in a murine model.
Conclusion: The verified tumor heterogeneity indicates the need for a multi-epitope approach for the successful immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma.
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer, tumor-associated antigens, tumor marker, ELISA, Western Blot, immunotherapy, therapeutic vaccine, potency testing, topological proteomics
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