Triple Therapy with Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate Improves Inspiratory Capacity in Patients with Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap
Received 14 September 2019
Accepted for publication 9 January 2020
Published 5 February 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 269—277
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Yoshihisa Ishiura,1,2 Masaki Fujimura,3 Noriyuki Ohkura,4 Johsuke Hara,4 Kazuo Kasahara,4 Nobuyasu Ishii,1 Yusuke Sawai,1 Toshiki Shimizu,1 Takeshi Tamaki,1 Shosaku Nomura1
1First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan; 2Respiratory Medicine, Toyama City Hospital, Toyama, Japan; 3Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Nanao Hospital, Nanao, Japan; 4Respiratory Medicine, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan
Correspondence: Yoshihisa Ishiura
First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Kansai Medical University Medical Center, 10-15 Fumizono-Cho, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8507, Japan
Purpose: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO), characterized by airway limitation, is an important condition with high incidence and mortality. Although some guidelines recommend triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting muscarinic antagonists/long-acting β2 agonists, this treatment approach is based on the extrapolation of data from studies of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) alone.
Methods: A 12-week, randomized, open-label cross-over pilot study was conducted in 19 patients with ACO to investigate the effect of triple therapy with glycopyrrolate (GLY) 50 μg/day on budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BUD/FORM) 640/18 μg/day. The study period included a 4-week wash-out, 4-week run-in, and 4-week treatment period. Respiratory function tests, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a COPD assessment test (CAT) and an asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) were carried out 0, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization.
Results: A total of 19 patients with stable ACO (19 males and no females) with a mean age of 70.7 ± 7.6 years (± standard deviation, SD; range 55– 83 years) participated in this study. All patients were ex-smokers with a smoking history of 63.1 ± 41.1 pack-years (± SD). Mean values for inspiratory capacity (IC), an index of hyperinflation of the lung that causes exertional dyspnea and reduced exercise, were 1.93 L (± 0.47 L) after the run-in, 1.85 L (± 0.51 L) after the BUD/FORM dual therapy period and 2.11 L (± 0.58 L) after the BUD/GLY/FORM triple therapy period. IC values after the BUD/GLY/FORM triple therapy were significantly higher than those after the run-in (p < 0.02). FeNO values, ACQ, and CAT scores were not significantly different among the run-in, wash-out, and triple-therapy periods.
Conclusion: The present pilot study showed that triple therapy with BUD/GLY/FORM results in an improvement in lung function parameters including IC, indicating the potential value of triple therapy as standard treatment for ACO.
Keywords: asthma-COPD overlap, budesonide, glycopyrrolate, formoterol fumarate, triple therapy
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