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Trend and Characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Patients Attending Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Western Nepal: A Longitudinal Study of 2018

Authors Raut S, Rijal KR, Khatiwada S, Karna S, Khanal R, Adhikari J, Adhikari B

Received 16 April 2020

Accepted for publication 17 May 2020

Published 8 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1631—1641


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Shristi Raut,1 Komal Raj Rijal,2 Sulochana Khatiwada,1 Subash Karna,1 Rita Khanal,1 Janak Adhikari,3 Bipin Adhikari4

1Department of Microbiology, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal; 2Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal; 4Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Correspondence: Shristi Raut Email

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the major organisms causing nosocomial infections and is intrinsically resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to investigate the trend and characteristics of A. baumannii infections including its resistance pattern among patients attending Universal College of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital (UCMSTH) in Western Nepal, between January and December 2018.
Patients and Methods: A total of 4862 clinical samples received at the microbiology laboratory of UCMSTH over a period of a year were analyzed. Following bacterial culture on the samples, culture-positive isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using a modified Kirby–Bauer method. The demographic profile of the patient, information about samples, and the antibiotic profile of the A. baumannii isolated from different samples were recorded and analyzed.
Results: A total of 1180 (24.2%; 1180/4862) organisms were isolated from the total samples. Acinetobacter baumannii (12.4%; 147/1180) was the third most common organism. Prevalence of A. baumannii was found to be high in late summer/early winter (July: 15.9%; 18/113 and December: 18.8%; 13/69). The majority 71.4% (n=105) of A. baumannii isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). None of the isolate was pan-drug resistant. Colistin, polymyxin B, and tigecycline were 100% sensitive to A. baumannii. MDR bacteria were significantly associated with the gender of the patients [female: 51.4% (54/105) versus male: 48.6% (51/105); p=0.05], clinical specimens [swab: 40% (42/105) sputum: 21.9% (23/105) and urine: 10.5% (11/105); p=0.02] and different wards of the hospital [surgery: 30.5% (32/105); ICU: 21.9% (23/105) and medicine: 19.0% (20/105); p< 0.03].
Conclusion: The high burden of MDR Acinetobacter isolates in clinical specimens shows an alarming presence of antimicrobial resistance. Two-thirds of the specimens showed MDR and were associated with demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. In the management of infectious diseases at UCMSTH, there should be a high suspicion of Acinetobacter infection, and isolation and treatment should be carried out based on an antibiotic susceptibility test.

Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, culture, antibiotic profile, multidrug resistance

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