Treatment outcome and prognostic indices in patients with hyperglycemic emergencies
IU Ezeani,1 A Eregie,2 OS Ogedengbe2
1Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the treatment outcomes in patients with hyperglycemic emergencies and to ascertain the factors associated with outcome, with emphasis on the determinants of outcome.
Method: A total of 105 patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency unit, who fulfilled the criteria for hyperglycemic emergencies, were selected. The information extracted included sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as hospitalization outcome.
Results: Of the 105 subjects that participated in the study, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state (HHNK) was seen in 50% (53) of the subjects, while diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was seen in 31% (29), normo-osmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic state (NNHS) in 12% (13), and mixed hyperglycemic emergency in 7% (10) of the subjects. The overall mortality rate in this study was 4.8%. Three deaths were recorded in patients with HHNK, while DKA and NNHS each had one death. Three of the deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission while the other two were more than 24 hours after admission. The mean (standard deviation) total duration of hospital stay was 24.2 days (SD), and the range of stay was 0.5–88 days.
Conclusion: The most common type of hyperglycemic emergency seen in this study was HHNK. Also, the presence of infection, and sex of the study subject, were significant determinants of outcome in this study.
Keywords: hyperglycemia, emergency, diabetes mellitus, insulin
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