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Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

Authors Hsiung N, Yang Y, Lee M, Dalal K, Smith GD

Received 24 June 2015

Accepted for publication 9 January 2016

Published 15 September 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 661—669

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S91036

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Minal Joshi

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael E Schatman


Nai-Huan Hsiung,1 Yen Yang,1 Ming Shinn Lee,2 Koustuv Dalal,3 Graeme D Smith4

1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Public Health Science, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK


Abstract: This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments.

Keywords: pain, scales, BPS, CPOT, Taiwan

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