Therapeutic potential of pravastatin for random skin flaps necrosis: involvement of promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress
Received 21 November 2018
Accepted for publication 23 March 2019
Published 1 May 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1461—1472
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Cristiana Tanase
Jinti Lin,1–3 Chang Jia,3,4 Yongli Wang,5 Shanghong Jiang,3 Zhenyu Jia,6 Nan Chen,3 Shimin Sheng,3 Shihen Li,1–3 Liangfu Jiang,1–3 Huazi Xu,1–3 Kailiang Zhou,1–3 Yijie Chen3,7
1Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, People’s Republic of China; 2Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Orthopaedics, Wenzhou 325027, People’s Republic of China; 3The Second Clinical Medical College of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, People’s Republic of China; 4Pediatric Research Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Orthopaedics, Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou 313300, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, People’s Republic of China
Background: Random skin flap is frequently used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, but its distal part often occurs ischemia and necrosis. Pravastatin (Prava) with bioactivities of pro-angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative stress, may be beneficial for flap survival.
Materials and methods: A modified McFarlane flap model was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into the Control and Prava groups and treated as follows: the Prava group was injected intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg Prava for consecutive 7 days, and the Control group received an equal volume of vehicle daily. On day 7, the necrosis skin flaps were observed, while visualization of blood flow below the tissue surface was performed by Laser Doppler blood flow imaging (LDBFI). Then animals were euthanized, and levels of angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were analyzed.
Results: Prava decreased necrosis and edema of skin flaps compared with the Control group, with more blood flow in the flap under LDBFI. Prava treatment increased the mean vessels density, elevated the expression levels of angiogenic proteins (matrix metallopeptidase 9, vascular endothelial growth factor, Cadherin5) and antioxidant proteins (superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, heme oxygenase), and decreased the expression of apoptotic factors (BAX, CYC, Caspase3). In addition, malondialdehyde content was reduced, and glutathione level and SOD activity were increased in the skin flaps after treatment with Prava.
Conclusion: Prava promotes survival of random skin flap through induction of angiogenesis, and inhibition of apoptosis and oxidative stress.
Keywords: Pravastatin, random skin flap, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, apoptosis
Corrigendum for this paper has been published
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