The role of inflammation and interleukin-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease
James Galea,1 David Brough2
1Manchester Academic Health Sciences Center, Brain Injury Research Group, Clinical Sciences Building, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, UK
Abstract: Acute cerebrovascular disease can affect people at all stages of life, from neonates to the elderly, with devastating consequences. It is responsible for up to 10% of deaths worldwide, is a major cause of disability, and represents an area of real unmet clinical need. Acute cerebrovascular disease is multifactorial with many mechanisms contributing to a complex pathophysiology. One of the major processes worsening disease severity and outcome is inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL)-1 family are now known to drive damaging inflammatory processes in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature describing the role of IL-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease and to provide an update on our current understanding of the mechanisms of IL-1 production. We also discuss the recent literature where the effects of IL-1 have been targeted in animal models, thus reviewing potential future strategies that may limit the devastating effects of acute cerebrovascular disease.
Keywords: cerebral ischemia, stroke, inflammation, microglia, interleukin-1, caspase-1
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