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The prevalence and determinants of poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

Authors Alzaheb RA, Altemani AH

Received 6 November 2017

Accepted for publication 12 December 2017

Published 31 January 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 15—21


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2

1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.
Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31), longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years), insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06), or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18), or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59).
Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia

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