The prevalence and correlates of the positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire among psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey of 176 men in a general hospital in Taiwan
Authors Lee C, Chen Y, Jiang K, Chu C, Hsu S, Chen J, Chen CY
Received 11 October 2014
Accepted for publication 10 November 2014
Published 20 January 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 185—189
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Yu Chen,2–4 Kun-Hao Jiang,2,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,2,4 Shih-Chieh Hsu,1,2,4 Jiun-Liang Chen,2,4,5 Ching-Yen Chen1,2,4
1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan; 5Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
Introduction: The Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is widely used to screen for late-onset hypogonadism. The positive response to the ADAM questionnaire (positive ADAM) has been associated with depression and poorer quality of life in a number of studies. It is unclear whether there is any value of the ADAM questionnaire in psychiatric populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the utility of the ADAM questionnaire in a convenient sample of male psychiatric outpatients.
Methods: One hundred and seventy-six men (mean age: 54.3 years; standard deviation: 10.7 years; range: 40–80 years) completed the ADAM questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Anxiety was defined as a HADS anxiety subscore ≥8; depression as a HADS depression subscore ≥8; and moderate/severe impairment of health-related quality of life (HQoL) as AMS ≥37. ADAM, anxiety, and depression was used to model the moderate/severe impairment of HQoL.
Results: One hundred and sixty-four (93%) men had positive ADAM. Positive ADAM was associated with a lower body mass index (P<0.05) and moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (P<0.001), but was not associated with anxiety or depression (P>0.05). Positive ADAM was associated with five symptoms of the AMS scale: “decline of one’s feeling of general well-being”, “depressive mood”, and three sexual symptoms. In regression analysis, positive ADAM was associated with increased risk of moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (unadjusted odds ratio 20.1, 95% confidence interval 3.77–372, P<0.01), which remained significant with covariates of anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio 15.6, 95% confidence interval 2.52–309, P<0.05).
Conclusion: The ADAM questionnaire can be used to screen the sexual symptoms but not depression/anxiety in male psychiatric outpatients. Positive ADAM may indicate moderate/severe impairment of HQoL.
Keywords: Aging Males’ Symptoms scale, anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life
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