The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development
Authors Peters M, Potter C, Kelly L, Hunter C, Gibbons E, Jenkinson C, Coulter A, Forder J, Towers A, A'Court C, Fitzpatrick R
Received 19 January 2016
Accepted for publication 26 April 2016
Published 30 August 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 109—125
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Abhishek Kavati
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Robert Howland
Michele Peters,1 Caroline M Potter,1 Laura Kelly,1 Cheryl Hunter,1 Elizabeth Gibbons,1 Crispin Jenkinson,1 Angela Coulter,1 Julien Forder,2 Ann-Marie Towers,2 Christine A’Court,3,4 Ray Fitzpatrick1
1Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, 2Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Kent, Canterbury, 3Nuffield Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, 4Broadshires Health Centre, Carterton, UK
Purpose: To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions.
Materials and methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions.
Results: Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire.
Conclusion: The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.
Keywords: long-term conditions, conceptual framework, qualitative interviews, patient-reported outcome measure
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