The influence of TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharides on hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the feasibility of its application in treating liver cancer
Authors Gu J, Sun R, Shen S, Yu Z
Received 13 April 2015
Accepted for publication 12 June 2015
Published 21 August 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 2215—2225
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 5
Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniele Santini
This paper has been retracted
Junsheng Gu, Ranran Sun, Shen Shen, Zujiang Yu
Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China
Objective: This study was designed to explore the influence of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on liver cancer cell and the feasibility to perform liver cancer adjuvant therapy.
Methods: Human liver cancer cell lines HepG2, H7402, and PLC/PRF/5 were taken as models, and the expression of TLRs mRNA was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction method semiquantitatively. WST-1 method was used to detect the influence of LPS on the proliferation ability of liver cancer cells; propidium iodide (PI) single staining and Annexin V/PI double staining were used to test the influence of LPS on the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively, on human liver cancer cell line H7402. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot method were used to determine the change of expression of Cyclin D1.
Results: The results demonstrated that most TLRs were expressed in liver cancer cells; stimulating TLR4 by LPS could upregulate TLR4 mRNA and the protein level, activate NF-κB signaling pathway downstream of TLR4, and mediate the generation of inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; LPS was found to be able to strengthen the proliferation ability of liver cancer cells, especially H7402 cells; the expression of Cyclin D1 rose and H7402 cells were promoted to transit from G1 stage to S stage under the stimulation of LPS, but cell apoptosis was not affected. It was also found that LPS was able to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription -3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in H7402 cells and meanwhile significantly increase the initiation activity of STAT3; proliferation promoting effect of LPS to liver cancer cells remarkably lowered once STAT3 was blocked or inhibited.
Conclusion: Thus, TLR4 agonist LPS is proved to be able to induce liver cancer cells to express inflammation factors and mediate liver cancer cell proliferation and generation of multidrug resistance by activating the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin signal axis as well as the STAT3 pathway.
Keywords: water soluble tetrazolium-1, propidium iodide single staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, cell proliferation, signaling pathway, LPS
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