The in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: influences of material factors
Received 1 October 2018
Accepted for publication 16 January 2019
Published 15 February 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1177—1191
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang
Hongfeng Wu,1 Zhongtao Li,2 Jiaoqing Tang,2 Xiao Yang,1 Yong Zhou,3 Bo Guo,4 Lin Wang,2 Xiangdong Zhu,1 Chongqi Tu,3 Xingdong Zhang1
1National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 2Department of Dermatology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; 3Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; 4Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
Background: Treatment for melanoma is a challenging clinical problem, and some new strategies are worth exploring.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) and discuss the involved material factors.
Materials and methods: Five types of HANPs, ie, HA-A, HA-B, HA-C, HA-D, and HA-E, were prepared by wet chemical method combining with polymer template and appropriate post-treatments. The in vitro effects of the as-prepared five HANPs on inhibiting the viability of A375 melanoma cells and inducing the apoptosis of the cells were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 analysis, cell nucleus morphology observation, flow cytometer, and PCR analysis. The in vivo anti-melanoma effects of HANPs were studied in the tumor model of nude mice.
Results: The five HANPs had different physicochemical properties, including morphology, size, specific surface area (SSA), crystallinity, and so on. By the in vitro cell study, it was found that the material factors played important roles in the anti-melanoma effect of HANPs. Among the as-prepared five HANPs, HA-A with granular shape, smaller size, higher SSA, and lower crystallinity exhibited best effect on inhibiting the viability of A375 cells. At the concentration of 200 µg/mL, HA-A resulted in the lowest cell viability (34.90%) at day 3. All the HANPs could induce the apoptosis of A375 cells, and the relatively higher apoptosis rates of the cells were found in HA-A (20.10%) and HA-B (19.41%) at day 3. However, all the HANPs showed no inhibitory effect on the viability of the normal human epidermal fibroblasts. The preliminary in vivo evaluation showed that both HA-A and HA-C could delay the formation and growth speed of melanoma tissue significantly. Likely, HA-A exhibited better effect on inhibiting the growth of melanoma tissue than HA-C. The inhibition rate of HA-A for tumor tissue growth reached 49.1% at day 23.
Conclusion: The current study confirmed the anti-melanoma effect of HANPs and provided a new idea for the clinical treatment of melanoma.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanoparticles, melanoma cells, fibroblasts, viability, apoptosis, tumor, suppression