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The impact of hypoxia in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis

Authors Yuen A, Díaz B

Received 12 April 2014

Accepted for publication 8 May 2014

Published 16 July 2014 Volume 2014:2 Pages 91—106

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HP.S52636

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4


Angela Yuen, Begoña Díaz

Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

Abstract: Intratumoral hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors. Recent advances in cancer biology indicate that hypoxia is not only a consequence of unrestrained tumor growth, but also plays an active role in promoting tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia signaling is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are not only stabilized under hypoxia, but also by activated oncogenes or inactivated tumor suppressors under normoxia. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of the tumor microenvironment of pancreatic tumors, also characterized by the presence of a fibrotic reaction that promotes, and is also modulated by, hypoxia. As the mechanisms by which hypoxia signaling impacts invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer are being elucidated, hypoxia is emerging as a key determinant of pancreatic cancer malignancy as well as an important target for therapy. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in the understanding of the impact that hypoxia has in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis.

Keywords: PanIN, EMT, HIF-1, invadopodia, PDAC, invasion

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