The impact of hypoxia in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis
Angela Yuen, Begoña Díaz
Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
Abstract: Intratumoral hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors. Recent advances in cancer biology indicate that hypoxia is not only a consequence of unrestrained tumor growth, but also plays an active role in promoting tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia signaling is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are not only stabilized under hypoxia, but also by activated oncogenes or inactivated tumor suppressors under normoxia. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of the tumor microenvironment of pancreatic tumors, also characterized by the presence of a fibrotic reaction that promotes, and is also modulated by, hypoxia. As the mechanisms by which hypoxia signaling impacts invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer are being elucidated, hypoxia is emerging as a key determinant of pancreatic cancer malignancy as well as an important target for therapy. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in the understanding of the impact that hypoxia has in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis.
Keywords: PanIN, EMT, HIF-1, invadopodia, PDAC, invasion
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]