Back to Journals » Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy » Volume 8

The humanistic and economic burden associated with increasing body mass index in the EU5

Authors Gupta S, Richard L, Forsythe A

Received 28 February 2015

Accepted for publication 1 May 2015

Published 22 July 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 327—338

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S83696

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou


Video abstract presented by S Gupta and A Forsythe

Views: 150

Shaloo Gupta,1 Lance Richard,2 Anna Forsythe3

1Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Eisai Europe Ltd, Hatfield, UK; 3Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA

Objectives: This study evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health utilities, health care resource utilization, productivity, activity impairment, and the associated costs.
Methods: Results were from the 2013 EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) National Health and Wellness Survey, a nationally representative, online survey of respondents aged ≥18 years. Analyses focused on normal weight (BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and BMI <25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and BMI <30 kg/m2), Obese Class (OC) I (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and BMI <35 kg/m2), OC II (BMI ≥35 kg/m2 and BMI <40 kg/m2), and OC III (BMI <40 kg/m2) respondents. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form [SF]-36v2), health utilities (SF-six dimension [6D]), productivity loss (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire), and resource utilization (provider visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations) in the past 6 months. Direct and indirect costs were estimated from the literature. Generalized linear regression models predicted outcomes as a function of BMI, adjusting for covariates (age, sex, comorbidities).
Results: Among 58,364 respondents, 46.9% were normal weight, 34.5% were overweight, 12.5% were OC I, 4.0% were OC II, and 2.1% were OC III. Metabolic comorbidities increased as BMI increased. After adjustments, all three OC respondents exhibited significantly lower HRQoL than normal weight respondents. Health utilities (normal weight: 0.720; overweight: 0.718; OC I: 0.703; OC II: 0.683; OC III: 0.662) declined with an increase in BMI (all P<0.05 vs normal). Among employed respondents (57.7%), overall work impairment increased as BMI increased. Normal (vs all OCs) had lower activity impairment and fewer provider visits, lower indirect costs (normal weight: €7,974; overweight: €7,825; OC I: €8,465; OC II: €9,394; OC III: €10,437), and lower total direct costs (normal weight: €516; overweight: €553; OC I: €583; OC II: €605; OC III: €717), all P<0.05.
Conclusion: Increased BMI was associated with worse HRQoL, greater comorbidities, higher direct and indirect costs, and worse health utilities. Weight management may improve patient outcomes.

Keywords: obesity, health-related quality of life, health utilities, metabolic comorbidities, Europe, direct and indirect costs

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]