The Health-Related Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Healthcare Resource Utilization, and Economic Burden Associated with Levels of Suicidal Ideation Among Patients Self-Reporting Moderately Severe or Severe Major Depressive Disorder in a National Survey
Authors Benson C, Singer D, Carpinella CM, Shawi M, Alphs L
Received 27 June 2020
Accepted for publication 22 December 2020
Published 18 January 2021 Volume 2021:17 Pages 111—123
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Carmela Benson,1 David Singer,2 Colleen M Carpinella,3 May Shawi,4 Larry Alphs4
1Real-World Value & Evidence, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Jefferson College of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Real-World Evidence Health Division, Kantar Health, San Mateo, CA, USA; 4Neuroscience Medical Affairs, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA
Correspondence: Carmela Benson Director, Real-World Value & Evidence, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, 1125 Trenton-Harbourton Road, Titusville, NJ 08560, USA
Background: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a cardinal aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD); however, patient-reported outcomes data from large-scale surveys are limited concerning SI in the context of MDD. This study aims to understand the association between varying levels of SI and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), work productivity, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and associated costs in patients with moderately severe/severe MDD.
Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 2013 national survey data. Patients who self-reported moderately severe or severe MDD and completed the Short Form Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2), Work Productivity Loss and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI), and questions related to HRU were analyzed. Direct and indirect costs were calculated. Patients were categorized and analyzed by the level of SI (no SI, low, moderate, and high) based on their response to Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.
Results: Among 75,000 respondents, 15.3% self-reported receiving a physician diagnosis of moderately severe or severe MDD and 2.8% of the total sample endorsed some level of SI. Patients with high SI showed a higher burden than patients with no SI, reporting lower mean SF-36v2 mental component summary scores (p< 0.001), higher work productivity loss (p=0.039), and higher numbers of per patient per month hospitalizations (p=0.002) and emergency room visits (p=0.011). High SI was associated with greater per patient per month direct costs ($1220 vs $796; p=0.002) and indirect costs ($1449 vs $1058; p=0.001) compared with no SI. When patients with low or moderate SI were compared with patients with no SI, the results were mixed.
Conclusion: Higher levels of SI were associated with lower HRQoL, greater HRU, and more work impairment resulting in higher direct and indirect costs compared with patients with MDD but no SI. These results highlight the need to implement effective treatment models and interventions in the employed population.
Keywords: major depression, suicidal ideation, economic burden, health-related quality of life
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