Back to Journals » Infection and Drug Resistance » Volume 13

The Existence of High Bacterial Resistance to Some Reserved Antibiotics in Tertiary Hospitals in Tanzania: A Call to Revisit Their Use

Authors Mikomangwa WP, Bwire GM, Kilonzi M, Mlyuka H, Mutagonda RF, Kibanga W, Marealle AI, Minzi O, Mwambete KD

Received 17 February 2020

Accepted for publication 3 June 2020

Published 17 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1831—1838


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Wigilya P Mikomangwa,1,* George M Bwire,2,* Manase Kilonzi,1,* Hamu Mlyuka,1 Ritah F Mutagonda,1 Wema Kibanga,1 Alphonce Ignace Marealle,1 Omary Minzi,1 Kennedy D Mwambete2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Wigilya P Mikomangwa Email

Background: Antibiotic resistance poses burden to the community and health-care services. Efforts are being made at local, national and global level to combat the rise of antibiotic resistance including antibiotic stewardship. Surveillance to antibiotic resistance is of importance to aid in planning and implementing infection prevention and control measures. The study was conducted to assess the resistance pattern to cefepime, clindamycin and meropenem, which are reserved antibiotics for use at tertiary hospitals in Tanzania.
Methods: A hospital-based antibiotic resistance surveillance was conducted between July and November 2019 at Muhimbili National Hospital and Bugando Medical Center, Tanzania. All organisms isolated were identified based on colony morphology, Gram staining and relevant biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on Muller-Hinton agar using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed according to the protocol by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
Results: A total of 201 clinical samples were tested in this study. Urine (39.8%, n=80) and blood (35.3%, n=71) accounted for most of the collected samples followed by pus (16.9%, n=34). The bacterial resistance to clindamycin, cefepime and meropenem was 68.9%, 73.2% and 8.5%, respectively. About 68.4% Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to clindamycin whereby 56.3%, 75.6%, 93.8% and 100% of the tested Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively, were cefepime resistant. About 8.5% of isolated Klebsiella spp were resistant and 6.4% had intermediate susceptibility to meropenem. Also, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant by 31.2% and 25% had intermediate susceptibility to meropenem.
Conclusion: The bacterial resistance to clindamycin and cefepime is high and low in meropenem. Henceforth, culture and susceptibility results should be used to guide the use of these antibiotics. Antibiotics with low resistance rate should be introduced to the reserve category and continuous antibiotic surveillance is warranted.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, clindamycin, cefepime, meropenem, reserved antibiotics, bacteria, susceptibility pattern

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]