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The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the rat model of experimental autoimmune neuritis and the implications for treatment of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy or Guillain–Barré syndrome

Authors Jiao H, Ren H

Received 25 May 2018

Accepted for publication 3 August 2018

Published 6 November 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 3817—3824

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S175331

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos


Hong Jiao,1 Huan Ren2,3

1Department of Neurology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150001, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081, People’s Republic of China; 3Immunity & Infection Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081, People’s Republic of China

Background: Guillain–Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that is characterized histologically by demyelination of peripheral nerves and nerve roots, infiltrates of T lymphocytes, and an inflammatory response that includes macrophage infiltrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in a rat model of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN).
Methods: Forty male Lewis rats were divided into a control group (N=10), an EAN group (N=10), an EAN group treated with 15 nmol of VIP (N=10), and an EAN group treated with 30 nmol of VIP (N=10). The rat model was created by subcutaneous injection of P2 polypeptide (200 µg P257–81) into the base of the tail. Intraperitoneal injection of VIP was given on day 7. Rats were weighed and functionally evaluated using an EAN score (0–10). On day 16, the rats were euthanized. The sciatic nerve was examined histologically and using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CD8, CD68, and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Serum concentrations of IL-17 and interferon-α (IFN-α) were measured by ELISA on day 16 after creating the EAN model.
Results: The VIP-treated EAN groups had increased body weight and improved EAN scores compared with the untreated EAN group. CD8-positive and CD68-positive cells were significantly reduced in the EAN group treated with 30 nmol of VIP compared with 15 nmol of VIP. Foxp3-positive cells were significantly decreased in both EAN groups treated with VIP, and serum concentrations of IL-17 and IFN-α were significantly lower compared with the untreated EAN group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: In a rat model of EAN, treatment with VIP resulted in functional improvement, reduced nerve inflammation, and decreased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines.

Keywords: Guillain–Barré syndrome, vasoactive intestinal peptide, experimental autoimmune neuritis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

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