The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport
This paper has been retracted.
Marty Hinz 1, Alvin Stein 2, Thomas Uncini 3
1Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USA
Abstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined. 1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.
Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.
Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.
Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.
Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.
Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal
Expression of Concern for this paper has been published
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