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The benefit of using bladder sub-volume equivalent uniform dose constraints in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning

Authors Zhu J, Simon A, Haigron P, Lafond C, Acosta O, Shu H, Castelli J, Li B, De Crevoisier R

Received 5 July 2016

Accepted for publication 11 September 2016

Published 12 December 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 7537—7544


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr William Cho

Jian Zhu,1–3 Antoine Simon,3–5 Pascal Haigron,3–5 Caroline Lafond,4–6 Oscar Acosta,4,5 Huazhong Shu,1,3 Joel Castelli,4–6 Baosheng Li,1–3 Renaud De Crevoisier3–6

1Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, Jinan, 3Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale Sino-français, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U1099, 5Laboratory of Signal and Image Processing (LTSI), University of Rennes 1, 6Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes, France

Background: To assess the benefits of bladder wall sub-volume equivalent uniform dose (EUD) constraints in prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning.
Methods: Two IMRT plans, with and without EUD constraints on the bladder wall, were generated using beams that deliver 80 Gy to the prostate and 46 Gy to the seminal vesicles and were compared in 53 prostate cancer patients. The bladder wall was defined as the volume between the external manually delineated wall and a contraction of 7 mm apart from it. The bladder wall was then separated into two parts: the internal-bladder wall (bla-in) represented by the portion of the bladder wall that intersected with the planning target volume (PTV) plus 5 mm extension; the external-bladder wall (bla-ex) represented by the remaining part of the bladder wall. In the IMRT plan with EUD constraints, the values of “a” parameter for the EUD models were 10.0 for bla-in and 2.3 for bla-ex. The plans with and without EUD constraints were compared in terms of dose–volume histograms, 5-year bladder and rectum normal tissue complication probability values, as well as tumor control probability (TCP) values.
Results: The use of bladder sub-volume EUD constraints decreased both the doses to the bladder wall (V70: 22.76% vs 19.65%, Dmean: 39.82 Gy vs 35.45 Gy) and the 5-year bladder complication probabilities (≥LENT/SOMA Grade 2: 20.35% vs 17.96%; bladder bleeding: 10.63% vs 8.64%). The doses to the rectum wall and the rectum complication probabilities were also slightly decreased by the EUD constraints compared to physical constraints only. The minimal dose and the V76Gy of PTVprostate were, however, slightly decreased by EUD optimization, nevertheless without significant difference in TCP values between the two plans, and the PTV parameters finally respected the Groupe d’Etude des Tumeurs Uro-Génitales recommendations.
Conclusion: Separating the bladder wall into two parts with appropriate EUD optimization may reduce bladder toxicity in prostate IMRT. Combining biological constraints with physical constraints in the organs at risk at the inverse planning step of IMRT may improve the dose distribution.

Keywords: prostate, IMRT, equivalent uniform dose

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