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The associations between serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin, and serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in Labrador Retrievers

Authors Streeter R, Struble A, Mann S, Nydam D, Bauer J, Castelhano M, Todhunter R, Cummings B, Wakshlag JJ

Received 19 December 2014

Accepted for publication 29 January 2015

Published 8 April 2015 Volume 2015:6 Pages 103—110

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S60478

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Takashi Agui

Renee M Streeter,1 Angela M Struble,1 Sabine Mann,2 Daryl V Nydam,2 John E Bauer,3 Marta G Castelhano,1 Rory J Todhunter,1 Bethany P Cummings,4 Joseph J Wakshlag1

1Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Abstract: Obesity has been associated with an increased inflammatory response and insulin resistance due to adipose tissue–derived adipokines and increases in C-reactive protein (CRP). Dogs appear to be similar to other species with the exception of adiponectin, which might not be affected by obesity status. Serum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations have been positively and negatively associated with serum adipokines. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin to body condition score (BCS) and to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in serum lipoproteins, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a reflection of dietary omega-3 status in the Labrador Retriever. Seventy-seven Labrador Retrievers were evaluated for BCS, percent fasting serum lipoprotein fatty acid concentrations, as well as serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and CRP. A multivariable general linear regression model was constructed to examine the association between the dependent variables leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin and the predictor variables of BCS, age, and sex, as well as concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and DPA. Adiponectin concentration was positively associated with age (P<0.0008), EPA (P=0.027) and negatively associated with DHA (P=0.008). Leptin concentration was positively associated with an increased DHA (P=0.009), BCS (P<0.0001), age (P=0.02), and decreased DPA (P=0.06). Insulin concentration was only associated with BCS (P<0.0001), and no meaningful associations were found for CRP. Longer chain omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in regulating adiponectin concentrations in dogs. However, because insulin concentrations were associated only with BCSs, further examination of the role of adiponectin in canine obesity is warranted. EPA and DPA may reduce the overall inflammatory state in dogs as these omega-3 fatty acids reflect increased adiponectin (increased EPA and decreased DHA) and decreased leptin (decreased DHA and increased DPA).

Keywords: dog, obesity, adiponectin, omega-3 fatty acid, insulin, leptin

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