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The Additional Prognostic Value of Ghrelin for Mortality and Readmission in Elderly Patients with Acute Heart Failure

Authors Yuan Y, Huang F, Deng C, Zhu P

Received 29 April 2020

Accepted for publication 20 July 2020

Published 11 August 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1353—1363


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Zhi-Ying Wu

Yin Yuan,1 Feng Huang,1– 4 Chaochao Deng,3 Pengli Zhu1,2

1The Shengli Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Fujian Provincial Institute of Clinical Geriatrics, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 4Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Feng Huang; Pengli Zhu Email;

Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide, for mortality and readmission in elderly patients with acute heart failure (AHF).
Patients and Methods: We measured plasma ghrelin and pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels upon emergency admission in 241 prospectively recruited elderly AHF patients (61.0% men). The outcomes were all-cause mortality and/or readmission due to heart failure (HF). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic value of ghrelin. Discrimination, calibration, and reclassification indices were compared between models, with or without ghrelin.
Results: During 1.2 years of follow-up, we observed 90 events (57 deaths and 33 readmissions due to HF). Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in elderly AHF patients, when compared to healthy control subjects (P < 0.001). Patients with events had significantly higher baseline ghrelin levels, when compared to those without (P < 0.001). Ghrelin levels were positively correlated with NT-proBNP levels and HF severity, whereas they were negatively correlated with nutritional status (all P < 0.05). Log transformed ghrelin levels were independently associated with AHF events (hazard ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.11– 6.25, P = 0.028). The incorporation of ghrelin into the reference model, or reference with the NT-proBNP model, both improved C-statistics (from 0.742– 0.780 and 0.836– 0.857; P = 0.074 and 0.044, respectively), resulting in an improvement in net reclassification index (14.42% and 10.45%, P = 0.020 and 0.025, respectively), and integrated discrimination index (5.64% and 3.60%, both P < 0.001). Patients who displayed the above NT-proBNP and ghrelin median levels had a markedly higher risk of AHF adverse events (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Plasma ghrelin is an independent predictor of adverse events in elderly AHF patients. Ghrelin may provide additional value to clinical parameters or NT-proBNP for prognostic risk stratification in AHF.

Keywords: ghrelin, acute heart failure, prognosis, elderly

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