Tetramethylpyrazine attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells through regulating apoptosis, autophagy and oxidative damage
Authors Wang S, Xia B, Qiao Z, Duan L, Wang G, Meng W, Liu Z, Wang Y, Zhang M
Received 27 November 2018
Accepted for publication 26 February 2019
Published 17 April 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1187—1196
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Tuo Deng
Shouliang Wang,1 Bin Xia,1 Zonglei Qiao,2 Lian Duan,3 Gongming Wang,1 Wenjun Meng,1 Zhifei Liu,1 Yu Wang,1 Mengyuan Zhang1
1Department of Anesthesiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Qingyun County People’s Hospital, Dezhou 253700, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Medical School of Shandong University, Jinan 250014, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
Background: Bupivacaine (BUP) acts as a local anesthetic, which is extensively used for clinical patients but could generate neurotoxicity in neurons. Tetramethylpyrazine (TET) exhibits strong neuron protective effects against neurotoxicity. Hence, we investigate the effect of TET on BUP-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.
Methods: CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, Western blotting was used to examine Bax, Bcl-2, active caspase 3, LC3II, Beclin 1 and p-62 protein levels in cells. Moreover, ELISA assay was used to detect the levels of total glutathione (GS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cells.
Results: In this study, we found that TET attenuated the neurotoxicity of BUP on SH-SY5Y cells. Meanwhile, TET alleviated BUP-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cell via decreasing the expressions of active caspase-3 and Bax and increasing the expression of Bcl-2. In addition, monodansylcadaverine staining assay and Western blotting results confirmed that TET induced autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells via increasing the LC3II/I and Beclin 1 levels. Furthermore, TET attenuated BUP-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells via upregulation of the levels of total GS and SOD and downregulation of the level of MDA. Interesting, the protective effects of TET against BUP-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells were reversed by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA).
Conclusion: These data indicated that TET may play a neuroprotective role via inhibiting apoptosis and inducing autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, TET may be a potential agent for the treatment of human neurotoxicity induced by BUP.
Keywords: tetramethylpyrazine, bupivacaine, neurotoxicity, human neuroblastoma cell
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