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Tetracycline-grafted PLGA nanoparticles as bone-targeting drug delivery system

Authors Wang H, Liu J, Tao S, Chai GH, Wang JW, Hu FQ, Yuan H

Received 18 May 2015

Accepted for publication 13 August 2015

Published 8 September 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 5671—5685

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S88798

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Preety Sahdev

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Hua Wang,1 Jun Liu,2 Shan Tao,2 Guihong Chai,2 Jianwei Wang,3 Fu-Qiang Hu,2 Hong Yuan2

1Center of Analysis and Measurement, 2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China

Purpose: Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymers and tetracycline (TC)-based bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of drugs, such as simvastatin (SIM), for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Methods: The molecular structures of TC–PLGA were validated by 1H-NMR, and the SIM-loaded NPs were prepared using the solvent emulsification method. The surface properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, cell mineralization, bone targeting potential, and animal pharmacodynamics of the TC–PLGA NPs were evaluated and compared to those of PLGA NPs.
Results: It was confirmed that the average particle size of the NPs was approximately 220 nm. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the SIM-loaded NPs exhibited a cumulative release of up to 80% within 72 hours. An in vitro cell evaluation indicated that the NPs had an excellent cellular uptake capacity and showed great biocompatibility with MC3T3-E1 cells, thereby reducing the cytotoxic effects of SIM. The cell mineralization assay showed that the SIM-loaded NPs induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralized nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells, thereby achieving the same effect as SIM. Preliminary findings from in vitro and in vivo bone affinity assays indicated that the TC–PLGA NPs may display increased bone-targeting efficiency compared to PLGA NPs lacking a TC moiety. The use of SIM-loaded TC–PLGA NPs in treating osteoporosis was tested through animal pharmacodynamics analyses performed in ovariectomized rats, and the results suggested that the SIM-loaded TC–PLGA NPs can improve the curative effects of SIM on the recovery of bone mineral density compared to either SIM-loaded PLGA NPs or SIM alone.
Conclusion: Bone-targeting NPs, which were based on the conjugation of TC to PLGA copolymers, have the ability to target bone. These NPs may be developed as a delivery system for hydrophobic drugs, and they are expected to improve the curative effects of drugs, reduce the administered drug doses, and reduce side effects in other organs.

Keywords: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), simvastatin, tetracycline, osteoporosis, bone targeting, nanoparticles

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