Targeting the kidney and glucose excretion with dapagliflozin: preclinical and clinical evidence for SGLT2 inhibition as a new option for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Jean M Whaley,1 Mark Tirmenstein,2 Timothy P Reilly,2 Simon M Poucher,3 JoAnne Saye,4 Shamik Parikh,5 James F List6
1Bristol-Myers Squibb, Metabolic Disease Discovery Biology, Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Drug Safety Evaluation, Research and Development, New Brunswick and Princeton, NJ, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Innovative Medicines Science Unit, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 4AstraZeneca, Global Safety Assessment, Research and Development, Wilmington, DE, USA; 5AstraZeneca, Cardiovascular, Clinical Development, Wilmington, DE, USA; 6Bristol-Myers Squibb, Global Clinical Development, Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USA
Abstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of glucuretic, antihyperglycemic drugs that target the process of renal glucose reabsorption and induce glucuresis independently of insulin secretion or action. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2 inhibitors have been found to consistently reduce measures of hyperglycemia, including hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose, throughout the continuum of disease. By inducing the renal excretion of glucose and its associated calories, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce weight and have the potential to be disease modifying by addressing the caloric excess that is believed to be one of the root causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additional benefits, including the possibility for combination with insulin-dependent antihyperglycemic drugs, a low potential for hypoglycemia, and the ability to reduce blood pressure, were anticipated from the novel mechanism of action and have been demonstrated in clinical studies. Mechanism-related risks include an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections and the possibility of over-diuresis in volume-sensitive patients. Taken together, the results of Phase III clinical studies generally point to a positive benefit-risk ratio across the continuum of diabetes patients. To date, data on dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor in development, demonstrate that the kidney is an efficacious and safe target for therapy, and that SGLT2 inhibition may have benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond glycemic control.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2, dapagliflozin, mechanism of action
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