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Tailored nanostructured platforms for boosting transcorneal permeation: Box–Behnken statistical optimization, comprehensive in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization

Authors Elsayed I, Sayed S

Received 30 August 2017

Accepted for publication 29 September 2017

Published 30 October 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 7947—7962


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Ibrahim Elsayed,1,2 Sinar Sayed1

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Abstract: Ocular drug delivery systems suffer from rapid drainage, intractable corneal permeation and short dosing intervals. Transcorneal drug permeation could increase the drug availability and efficiency in the aqueous humor. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize nanostructured formulations to provide accurate doses, long contact time and enhanced drug permeation. Nanovesicles were designed based on Box–Behnken model and prepared using the thin film hydration technique. The formed nanodispersions were evaluated by measuring the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and gelation temperature. The obtained desirability values were utilized to develop an optimized nanostructured in situ gel and insert. The optimized formulations were imaged by transmission and scanning electron microscopes. In addition, rheological characters, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo and in vivo permeation and safety of the optimized formulation were investigated. The optimized insert formulation was found to have a relatively lower viscosity, higher diffusion, ex vivo and in vivo permeation, when compared to the optimized in situ gel. So, the lyophilized nanostructured insert could be considered as a promising carrier and transporter for drugs across the cornea with high biocompatibility and effectiveness.

Keywords: thin-film hydration, in situ, insert, confocal, transcorneal, tenoxicam

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